Minutes of Sacred Harp Singings

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Camp FaSoLa 2011 Youth Session

Camp Lee, Anniston, Alabama

July 4-7, 2011

Monday, July 4

Registration for Camp FaSoLa 2011, Youth Session, began at 4:00 p.m. Campers were issued T-shirts, procedures lists, maps, and identification buttons. Campers had free time for recreation until dinner at 6:00 p.m. Orientation began at 7:00 p.m. with class singing following.

Class singing—led by counselors

Judy Caudle brought the class to order by leading 49t. Blake Sisemore offered the opening prayer.

Leaders: Joanna Lampert, Anna Bowen, Karley Craft, Holly Mixon, Hannah Tate, and Zoe Griffus 101t; Alvaro Duarte, William Clay, Nicholas Mann, Jacob Acton, Justin Corbett, and Jonathon Pendleton 144; Mary Elizabeth O’Neal, Grace Gilmore, Anna Grace Sipe, Ailee Martin, Katy Brown, Lillian Almohajer, and Hannah Polaski 129; Drew Smith and campers 383; Rachel Rudi, Carly Westmoreland, Dylenn Nelson, Cheyenne Ivey, Jennifer Betz, and Jessa Cherones 460; Blake Sisemore, Konrad Tegtmeier, Dylan Feezell, Christopher Mann, Will Schnorenberg, Tony Kiser, and Tom George 497; Lela Crowder, Philippa Stoddard, Paula Oliver, Rebekah Gilmore, Beth Anne Clay, Serenity Manning, Dinah East, and Macy Crawford 272; Thom Fahrbach and Cassie Allen 573; Carol Munro Mosley and Idy Kiser 472; Sarah Jenkins, Maci Gouvitsa, and Jackson Harcrow 354b; Sam Sommers and Eugene Forbes 207; Rhys McGovern, Mel Novner, and Ben Vincent 106; Lauren Bock, Deidra Montgomery, Kelsey Sunderland, and Emma Rose Brown 134; Aldo Ceresa, Tom Malone, Richard Ivey, and Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg 135; Justin Levi, Nathan Rees, Robert Kelley, and Jonathon Smith 418; Jennie Brown, Mary Gowins, and Becky Wright 102; Philippa Stoddard and Connie Hartley 277; Liz Cantrell and Sally Langendorf 40; Jonathan Wood, John Kelso, and Amy Armstrong 157; Ben Bath, Emily Hale-Sills, and Lindsey Wiggins 392; Kelly Kennedy and Holly Hauck 312b; Susan Cherones and Guy Bankes 74b; Jo Pendleton and Dave Rivers 34t; Rodney Ivey 347; Marcus Whitman and Kramer Klein 335; Steve Helwig, Justyna Orlikowska, Gosia Perycz, Piotr Zarzycki, and Blazej Matusiak 330t; David Ivey, Jeff Sheppard, and Shelbie Sheppard 297; Karen Ivey, Jeannette DePoy, and Richard Ivey 567; Pam Nunn and Reba Windom 269; Liz Kiser 426b.

Judy Caudle led 176t as the closing song. Alvaro Duarte presented the devotional. He spoke, referring to Psalms 125, and led 56b. He closed the devotional by offering prayer. Following announcements, the class was dismissed.

Tuesday, July 5

Lesson: Rudiments I / Youth I / Basics

9:00 a.m. The Ark. Teachers—Stuart Ivey and Lauren Bock. Stuart asked the class “What is music?” After discussion, the class determined that music is “sounds organized in a pleasing way”. Stuart led the class in singing octaves, and introduced the major and minor scales. The tonic is the first note of the scale that we always want to land on. Members of the class took turns singing the scale in front. Stuart stated that in order to sing songs we do not know, we need to read the scale. The class read and sang “Mary Had A Little Lamb” on the notes and words.

Lauren asked the class what an octave is, and said the octave is a note that is higher or lower but sounds the same. She gave an illustration using a six story house where the staircases between the stories corresponded with octaves.

Stuart gave the class an exercise to put the scale in order. Lauren demonstrated the relationship between major and minor, and noted that the first and fifth notes of both were important. The fifth note is the same distance on both scales, but the third is different. The class practiced singing these and other intervals.

Stuart had the class sing as loud and bad as they could, and then had the class sing at ninety percent of that volume. Why sing loud? It is fun! It is how Sacred Harp singers have always learned to sing. The boys and girls competed at singing the scale loudly and correctly. The class closed by singing the notes on “Twinkle, Twinkle”.

Stuart and Lauren reviewed the Rudiments, modes of time, rests, and scales. The class sang examples of songs for common, triple, and compound time. The teachers asked the class questions for review. A game was played to review the minor scale.

Lauren led the class in “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” for common time, “There’s A Hole in My Bucket” for triple time, and “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” for compound time. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments I / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. Lakeview Lodge. Ricky Harcrow introduced himself, and then asked the class to introduce themselves to him. He stressed the importance of learning fundamentals. He led 32t with everyone singing the tenor part. He continued by practicing the major scale with the class.

Ricky explained the parts of a brace (Rudiments pg. 13). Each part (tenor, bass, alto, and treble) is printed on a separate staff. Each set of parallel, horizontal lines are joined at the left end by vertical lines to make the brace.

Ricky examined the song on page 32t, and noted that the time signature was 4/4. He talked about the different modes of time (Rudiments, pg. 15-16), and led 40, then discussed rests (Rudiments, pg. 15). He asked the class to turn to page 45t, and noted the time signature as 3/4, the repeat marks, and the double ending (Rudiments pg. 14). He asked the class to turn to page 438, and discussed the D.S. mark, fine, and fermatas.

Ricky asked all the new students to stand together in the square. The group led 29t, and the class was dismissed.

Elective: Sacred Harp Composition 101 (t? b?)

10:30 a.m. Dining Hall. Aldo Ceresa introduced himself and began the class by stating that since the late 1700’s, there has never been a time when fasola music was not being written somewhere in the United States. From the very first, B.F. White’s inclusion of tunes written by fellow singers contributed to the success of The Sacred Harp. That new songs by contemporary singers have been added to every revision of the book since 1844 is not only a tribute to White’s legacy; but is also one of the most vital aspects of the living tradition of Sacred Harp. Consider the joy that the tunes of Billings, the Reese Brothers, the Densons, or Marcus Cagle have brought to generations of singers. What amazing gifts these people have bestowed, not only upon their friends and contemporaries, but to singers yet unborn, in lands both near and far. If any of us can contribute even the smallest fraction of that joy to some of our own friends and fellow singers, then our efforts will have been well worthwhile.

He continued by saying that Sacred Harp is a fairly conservative musical tradition. This is not to say that change and innovation have not occurred in its history, they have, but is to emphasize the fact that such changes are neither frequent nor revolutionary. Instead, Sacred Harp music is an evolutionary genre, greatly informed by its own past. Contemporary tune writing is as much a conversation with the tune smiths of former (and future) times as it is between the composer and the singing community of today. Hence, a good Sacred Harp tune should somehow seem familiar, even when it is new. It should “speak the language” of The Sacred Harp and relate, in some way, to songs that singers already know and love. If your song is replete with uncharacteristic melodic jumps and harmonic language, is unnecessarily difficult, and/or doesn’t “sound like Sacred Harp,” singers very likely won’t sing it. They may sing it with you to be supportive or polite, but that’s about it. At some point, then, it is important to ask yourself: “Do I want Sacred Harp singers to sing my music, and enjoy it?” If the answer is yes, then you might consider B.F. White’s admonition to “seek the old paths and walk therein”, especially when you are first starting out. Remember: Just because a song is written in shape notes, does not mean that it is a “shape note” or “Sacred Harp” song.

Aldo urged campers to use The Sacred Harp as a guide. Study the book. Try to figure out what makes favorite songs or passages “work” musically. Look for repeated melodic patterns or “words” that appear in songs throughout its pages. Learn from living composers like Raymond Hamrick, Hugh McGraw, Dan Brittain, or Judy Hauff. Seek out and listen to comments about your music from other singers. Watch out for passages that cause repeated difficulty when your music is sung. He said to learn the function and characteristics of each of the four voice parts. Try singing different parts at singings to improve this understanding.

Aldo noted that students should study Sacred Harp harmony. Though this lesson primarily treats tune writing from a melodic perspective, remember that harmony is equally important in Sacred Harp music. Learn how chords are constructed, and watch for discords as you assemble the parts in your tune.

Aldo said “Sing your music!” Sing each part of your song by yourself before presenting it to others. Sacred Harp is singers’ music. Whenever possible, sing your music as you are writing it. Also remember that Sacred Harp is polyphonic music. All the parts should be fun to sing individually, as well as in harmony.

Elective: More Rudiments

10:30 a.m. Genesis Lodge. Samuel Sommers began with prayer and led 313t. There was a review of the major and minor scales and a review of the Rudiments from the B.F. White book on accent. He recommended singing the tenor to begin with; as you get better, go with other options. As a beginner, pick a song and be acquainted with it before you lead it. Kelly Kennedy led 70 (t? b?) to demonstrate 2/2 time. Holly Mixon led 108 (t? b?) to demonstrate 4/4 time. The class sang 358 in 2/4 time, 49b in 3/2 time, and 33b in 3/4 time.

Sam recommended picking one aspect of singing to work on at each singing, such as focusing on accent, following the leader, or singing another part. Accent is with the voice, not with hand movements. While leading, it is easier for the class to follow when the hand is visible. Sam shared that leaders can key their own songs, or use a designated keyer, or choose someone else. Only the singer and the keyer can comment on or change the key of a song. The class closed by singing 59.

Elective: Wonderful Words of Life

10:30 a.m. Lakeview Lodge. Lela Crowder welcomed the class. She said that words are central to our music; if we came only to sing the notes and scales, the tradition would not have lasted.

Lela said that, at singings, choices have to be made concerning the number of verses to sing. It can be hard to do because they are all important. Words connect us to history, and to the experience of the writers of our songs. It is a privilege to know the innermost thoughts and feelings of these people.

Lela noted that people attend singings for several reasons, such as community experience, worship and praising God, and it’s JOYFUL. She said that singing is more participatory and less passive than other forms of worship service. We bring our own thoughts and memories to the poems.

Lela read a passage from “Wonderful Words of Life”, a book written by Mark A. Knowle, describing a singing experience of Phillip Doddridge. She said that Doddridge, Watts, Wesley, and many others made important contributions to hymnody, which changed Western Christianity. Henry Ward Beecher noted that more people frame their view of heaven from the words of Isaac Watts than from the Revelation of St. John. The poetry of songs asks deep questions. Hymn writers used ordinary words for ordinary people, so the meanings have lasted through time.

Some class members noted that in some modern church books, words have been changed. Lela said that when a committee changes ONE word, they change the authenticity of the author’s experience. The class continued the discussion of themes, gave some examples of personal experiences, and then was dismissed.

Lesson: Discussion on Sacred Harp Etiquette

1:00 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. Buell Cobb welcomed campers to the class, and said that this was his first year at Camp FaSoLa. He began by asking the class some questions that are common among singers; how to do right; how to have a successful singing; how to help other have a good singing. He read the text from the song on page 212 as a thematic backdrop for these questions. He stated that times change and standards of decorum change (manner of dress, behavior, and speech patterns), but that the words in this song remain applicable.

He related stories from his years as a singer that brought into question the idea that we should “leave at the doorstep” those things that would divide us. This principle has allowed Sacred Harp singing to survive and flourish.

Buell then addressed a number of topics, beginning with the Memorial lesson. He said that the memorial lesson is best reserved for singers, lovers of Sacred Harp, and family members; otherwise, we risk elements of divisiveness.

On the subject of leading, Buell said that there are two extremes that make it easy for the class to sing: one is the experienced leader, who knows just how to get what they want from the class; the other is the new leader who makes it evident that they are leaving it up to the front bench to carry the song. Difficulty arises when the front bench can’t tell if the leader is leading or following. He said that the front bench should take responsibility for helping the leader achieve what they want out of the lesson. If the front bench is watching the face and eyes of the leader, they can express the leader’s desire to rest of the class; i.e. faster, slower, number of verses, etc. Buell told of being a ghost writer for a newsletter on a couple of occasions. His persona, “Miss Grace Notes”, addressed the subject of number of verses, and advocated common sense.

He continued by talking about leaders who bring in parts. He said that at a really good singing, leaders are hardly needed, so why do we bother with bringing in parts? “Well”, he said,” it shows the leader’s full engagement with the music; it looks beautiful, if done properly; it creates a connection or chemistry with the class.”

Buell talked about the Arranging Committee, and its responsibilities. He said that good arranging will make for a good singing. The least interesting, and often less successful method, is calling, back to back, all members of a family or all seated on a row. Also, leaders that travel some distance to attend a singing should be interspersed with local leaders and should, of course, be called to sing during the high points of the day. As for seating arrangements, there are no set rules, but it is a good idea to mix experienced singers with new singers.

Buell told campers that at camp you will often hear “always do this” or “never do that”. These statements will certainly make a good guide, but season it with your own observations at singings and with what you see good singers do. Buell led 425 and added a second verse (We will meet our loved ones there, In the new Jerusalem), without giving any instruction to the class. He pointed out that the class wants to help you sing, and will do what the leader wants if you can make clear your intent. He said that the class is usually compliant if you will just let them know clearly. He told campers that the class sometimes will tell the leader what they want, as in the case of 3-peats.

A question and answer session followed Buell’s remarks. One camper asked about verses on the page, but not under the music, as in 67, or even words from another song. Buell answered that a class can handle a lot of things, but not everything. Another camper asked what to do if people are talking between songs. Buell answered that maybe an announcement would help. We shouldn’t treat the hollow square as a pulpit, but it can be a good place to tell the class if there is a problem. Someone else asked about beating through rests for songs written in triple time. Aldo Ceresa answered that a 2-beat rest at the beginning of a song with no repeats could be done in that manner without confusion. Jeff Sheppard advised to always pause between verses. Sam Sommers asked a question about 2 song lessons. Buell said that leaders used to direct the class for 20—30 minutes, then for decades, a 2 song lesson was common. The challenge was to find songs that pair well together. He said that one-song lessons really began in 1980 with the first National Convention, which was faced with a huge number of leaders. David Ivey suggested that singings should bring back the two-song lesson for smaller classes, rather than cycle through the leaders 3 and 4 times. Buell thanked the class for their attention, and dismissed them.

Lesson: Learning New Songs

1:00 p.m. The Ark. Teachers—Blake Sisemore and Joanna Lampert. Joanna opened the lesson by explaining why and how we should learn new songs. Blake Sisemore talked about the importance of the scale. The class sang the major and minor scales.

Joanna Lampert explained how the scale and different intervals make the song. She discussed the importance of modes of time when learning new songs.

The class did common time exercises. Blake Sisemore led 32t, examining 4/4 time and repeats, singing tenor and the notes only. The class sang 49t as an example of 2/2 time, and 87 for 2/4 time.

Blake and Joanna had the class break into parts to practice new songs or songs they wanted to learn. Leaders: Kiki 49b; Dan Pilch 572; Holly Mixon and Joanna Lampert 142; Matthew Betz and Blake Sisemore 323t; Jonathon Pendleton and Blake Sisemore 40; Jennifer Betz and Joanna Lampert 119. The class closed with announcements.

Elective: The 75th Anniversary of the 1936 Revision

2:30 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. Teachers-Aldo Ceresa and Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg. Aldo Ceresa brought the class to order by leading 392. He began by stating that the year 2011 marks two watershed anniversaries in the world of Sacred Harp: the centennial of the 1911 James book, and the 75th anniversary of the 1936 Denson Revision. While the 1911 book was steeped in controversy and hurriedly assembled amid the charged rhetoric of its day, the 1936 edition seems more in the spirit of the nineteenth century editions, even as it introduced some of the most revolutionary music in the history of the Sacred Harp canon. Indeed, if the James book is seen as the pioneer great-grandfather of the 1991 edition, steeped in fiery stories and exciting lore from a wild and distant era, but somehow remote and difficult to understand, the Denson book is the warm and wizened old grandmother: familiar, dignified, and full of wisdom, but not above a few quirks of her own. Aldo led 330t.

Of course, the history of the first Denson book begins with the Densons themselves. The famous singing brothers Seaborn McDaniel (1854-1936) and Thomas Jackson Denson (1863-1935) had already forged remarkable careers as singing masters by the time The Sacred Harp Publishing Company was formed to revise and maintain The Sacred Harp songbook.

Indeed, the 1936 edition marks the culmination of S.M. and T.J.‘s lives’ work as Sacred Harp singers, teachers, writers and compilers. That both died just as the new book was reaching completion (and within a mere month of each other) must have been heart-rending not only for the Denson family, but for the entire Sacred Harp community of that time. Robert Kelley led 399t and Judy Caudle led 286.

Tragic and startling as their deaths must have been, the Denson brothers had already turned over much of the family legacy to the care of the next generation by the time work on the 1936 revision got underway. That these younger Densons were up to the task was evidenced by the dispatch and expertise with which they completed the new book, not to mention their

continued contributions for decades to come as Sacred Harp singers, leaders, teachers, and composers. Foremost among them were Paine (1882-1955) and Howard Denson (1897-1950).

Leaders: Tom George 279; Philippa Stoddard 283; Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg “Entrekin”; Rachel Rudi 340; Deidre Montgomery 411; Becky Wright 377; Scott Ivey 455; Ben Vincent 456; Justyna Orlikowska 457.

Lesson: How To Beat The Seven Modes of Time

4:00 p.m. The Ark. Robert Kelley began the class by talking about the importance of time. He reviewed the seven modes of time, and talked about the difference in the tempo of each one.

Robert gave an analogy of a pendulum swinging, and demonstrated the arm motion to use while leading. The class reviewed all the modes of time and on which beat the emphasis is placed. To demonstrate various modes of time, the class sang 146 in 6/4 time, 503 in 3/2 time, 48t in 4/4 time, and 64 in 6/8 time. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Leading and Bringing in Parts / Adults

4:00 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. Judy Caudle welcomed the class, and led 155. She said that there is nothing in the Rudiments about bringing in parts. Some leaders choose to do this because it enhances their experience in the square, it is a means of communication with fellow singers, and it’s beautiful to watch, if done properly. Bringing in parts begins with the first note of the song. Your voice should sound the first tenor note, and bring the tenor in with you.

Volunteers led songs of their choice for practice and discussion. Leaders: Liz Kiser 212; Blake Sisemore 411; Emily Hale-Sills 276; Holly Mixon 142; Jennie Brown 189; Lauren Bock 181; Ben Vincent 383; Becky Wright 500; Thom Fahrbach 423; Emma Rose Brown 556. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Keying Music

5:00 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. David Ivey and Jeff Sheppard welcomed the class. David read the minimal amount of information about keys in the Rudiments. David said that the reason he began to key music was that there was a need for someone to do it. Jeff agreed, saying that all the keyers in his area were getting old and there was a need for new people. Richard Ivey and Nathan Rees related similar stories about why they began to key.

David mentioned different types of keyers: those who want to key their own song; those who key based on keys they hear in their heads; those who have musical backgrounds outside Sacred Harp and are already familiar with keys.

David talked about getting over the fear of keying, relative pitch, the importance of the tonic note, and the need to practice to develop confidence. Volunteers practiced keying songs, with help from David and Jeff. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Starting and Feeding a Singing

5:00 p.m. Genesis. Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg opened the floor for questions. After questions, the class discussed possible answers and suggestions.

On the question of how to start a monthly singing, Jesse said that one should look at the minutes book directory to avoid conflict with other singings. You would need someone to key songs, and have at least four people to cover parts, but hopefully, more than four. A location with a good acoustic singing space should be chosen, if possible. Poll your group on when to have the singing, such as a weekend, weekday, afternoon, or evening. Announce your singing on the Fasola Singing List.

On the question of how to get more people to a new singing or a singing that may be dying out, Jesse suggested that to help in promotion; send fliers, with personal notation; go to other singings and announce the singing; meet other people; send thank-you notes; and update your information in the minutes book.

Starting a collegiate singing was of interest to the class, and it was suggested that a student be in charge of the singing, and to have a singing school, if possible. An ensemble of students can raise money for camp scholarships, books, and other expenses. Try to include the music professor of the college. Get the word out on Facebook or other social networking sites. Sing Sacred Harp at lunch!

In closing, Jesse said to be an ambassador for your singing, and get people to want to travel to it.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. Lakeview Lodge—Youth Boys. On Tuesday night, just after dinner, a thunderstorm with vivid lightning and a heavy downpour of rain trapped some campers at the dining hall. Meanwhile, at Lakeview Lodge, the remaining campers were singing water songs. Cheyenne Ivey and Kelsey Sunderland led 528 and 222.

Tom George brought the class to order by leading 101t. The Youth Boys sang an original arrangement of 63 and 198. Leaders: Ethan Corbett 376; Paula Oliver, Grace Gilmore, and Rebekah Gilmore 209; Anna Bowen and Holly Mixon 142; Drew Smith, Guy Bankes, and Ben Bath 129; Aldo Ceresa and Christopher Mann 159; Justyna Orlikowska and Molly Ellis 442; Jacob Acton and Konrad Tegtmeier 35; Amy Armstrong and Theresa Westmoreland 192; Tom Malone, Justin Levi, and Joanna Lampert 316; Matt Hinton, Erica Hinton, Anna Hinton, and Eli Hinton 300; Cassie Allen and Philippa Stoddard 391; Richard Ivey, Holly Hauck, and Deidra Montgomery 81t; Jonathan Pendleton and Stuart Ivey 381; Rhys McGovern and Emma Kerry 339; Jennie Brown, Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg, and Connie Hartley 387; Robert Kelley and Lela Crowder 336; Rodney Ivey and Kramer Klein 344; Dinah East, Macy Crawford, John Kelso, and Mary Elizabeth O’Neal 49b; Susan Cherones and Jessa Cherones 74b; Serenity Manning, Dylenn Nelson, and Kiki Adair 178; Jonathan Wood and Thom Fahrbach 197; Karley Craft and Cheyenne Ivey 76b; Nicholas Mann and William Clay 274t; Piotr Zarzycki and Gosia Perycz 501; Idy Kiser, Jeannette DePoy, and Liz Cantrell 441; Blake Sisemore and Emma Rose Brown 556; Hannah Polaski 299.

Tom George and Ethan Corbett led 146 as the closing song. Ethan Corbett presented the devotional, reading from Psalms 118. Ethan Corbett and Jacob Acton led 345t. Jonathan Pendleton offered the closing prayer, and the class was dismissed.

Wednesday, July 6

Lesson: Rudiments II / Youth I / Basics

9:00 a.m. The Ark. Teachers—Stuart Ivey and Lauren Bock. The teachers noted that music is organized sound with definite pitches, high or low, and durations. The class today would deal with durations and rhythmics.

Stuart Ivey taught the class the different durations of notes and rests. He then introduced 4/4 time, and explained that the top number represents how many beats fill a measure and the bottom number is what kind of note has a beat. He explained how a dot increases the duration of a note by half.

Lauren Bock introduced 6/8, a mode of compound time. The class practiced and sang musical examples from the Rudiments in various modes of time, intervals, and different tempos. Lauren led the class in practicing common, triple, and compound time. The songs were “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star”, “Dear Liza”, and “Row, Row, Row Your Boat”.

Leaders: Ana Brown 31b; Jacob Acton and Ethan Corbett 198; Elizabeth Betz 354b; Holly Mixon 142; Maci Gouvitsa 45t; Justin Corbett 543; Dylenn Nelson146; Grace Gilmore 542; Jennifer Betz 59; Matthew Betz 323b; Beth Anne Clay 178; Sarah Jenkins and Dinah East 362; Drew Smith and Blake Sisemore 430; Lauren Bock and Katy Brown 318.

Lesson: Rudiments II / Youth II / Basics

9:00 a.m. Genesis. Teachers—Richard Ivey and Tom Malone. Richard Ivey brought the class to order by leading 39t. Christopher Mann offered the morning prayer.

Tom Malone reviewed the modes of time, bird’s eye, accent, and finding the key of a song by looking at the last note of the bass.

Richard Ivey led the class through practicing the minor scale and intervals. The class sang the major and minor scales in two parts. Songs practiced in minor were 313b in 2/2 time led by Richard Ivey and Konrad Tegtmeier; 278t in 3/4 time led by Richard Ivey and Marcus Whitman.

Tom discussed the importance of rests. Justin Corbett led 83t. Will Schnorenberg led 65, a minor compound time tune. Tony Kiser led 348b. Tom Malone led 37b, with the class singing the alto part. Richard Ivey led 276 with the class singing bass, and then with all parts.

Richard Ivey discussed that D.C. (da capo) means “go back to the head” or to the beginning of the song, and led 312b respecting the D.C. Richard explained the meaning of D.S., “to go back to the sign”, and pointed out 438 as the only example in the Sacred Harp.

Tom Malone talked about slurs and joined flags. They are two notes with different degrees. Tom Malone and Matt King led 51. Looking at page 15 in the Rudiments, the length of notes and dotted notes were discussed. The class sang 73t treble only, and Mel Novner led the song with all parts.

Tom led 188 for an example of triplets, which are three notes in the time of two, and also a type of slur. Tom Malone, Richard Ivey, and Hannah Polaski led 299 as the closing song. Tom George offered the closing prayer, and the class was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments II / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. Lakeview Lodge. Ricky Harcrow welcomed the class and led 31b. He then led the class in practicing singing the scales.

He reviewed the modes of time, relative pitch, and relative length of notes. He discussed dispersed harmony. The class sang 329 and 291, with everyone singing the tenor part on the notes, and then singing the words in all parts.

Leaders: Cornelia Tegtmeier 49t; Lindsey Wiggins 107; Ben Vincent 105; Emma Kerry 47b; Kramer Klein 146; Blazej Matusiak 131b; John Kelso 188. The class was dismissed.

Elective: The 100th Anniversary of the 1911 James Revision

10:30 a.m. Lakeview Lodge. Aldo Ceresa and Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg led 318 to bring the class to order. Aldo stated that this summer marks a grand anniversary in the history of The Sacred Harp. The 1911 J.S. James revision was the last of the three competing editions of the book that first appeared in the early 20th century. Like its rivals, the Cooper and J.L. White revisions, James’ Original Sacred Harp introduced a number of innovations and improvements to entice the singing public, including over 300 newly added alto parts. However, the James book was by far the most musically conservative of the three, largely eschewing the gospel and scientific music influences that the others embraced.

Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg talked about the James Revision. Sprawling and unapologetic, authoritatively bursting with facts and figures that were as entertaining as they were sometimes exaggerated or completely false, this edition was much like its principal creator and most vocal advocate. Despite its failings, Joe James’s book encompassed the best of Sacred Harp music and history up to that time. As such, it did more to preserve the sound of dispersed harmony for future generations than either of its competitors. It is the direct ancestor of our current 1991 revision.

Immediately adopted by the United Convention (which James himself had founded in 1904), the book’s immediate success seemed assured, at least in the Atlanta area and in regions where brothers S.M. and T.J. Denson were active (S.M. Denson was the primary musical editor of the 1911 edition.) Despite these early successes and James’s tireless efforts to promote his book, the future of the 1911 edition and the style of music it represented remained unclear. Through heated rhetoric and eventual legal battles, James still had two other new editions of The Sacred Harp to contend with. Each claimed to be the rightful heir to the legacy of B.F. White, whose 1869 fourth edition had been published some forty years earlier. That the James-Denson book tradition would eventually come to predominate and thrive into the 21st century was by no means obvious in 1911. In fact, with four decades of failed attempts to produce and increasing pressure from the seven-shape and gospel camps, the odds seemed stacked against it. Justyna Orlikowska led 114.

Aldo led “Singing School”, and continued the lesson, stating that from the time of White’s death in 1879, there had been periodic debate about when and how to revise his beloved Sacred Harp songbook.

Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg led “The Great Roll Call”. He said that in the midst of the debates, J.L. White once again stepped up to fill the void, reissuing the 1869 edition from the original plates (without changes) in 1897. However, this would only be a stopgap measure, as the race for the hearts of Sacred Harp singers began in earnest with W.M. Cooper’s new revised edition in 1902. Richard Ivey led 325.

Finally, in late summer of 1911, the Original Sacred Harp appeared. Like the Cooper and White revisions, this edition added altos to a large number of the old tunes. Unlike the others, however, the James revision allowed very little music that showed the influence either of the prevailing gospel style, or the more urbane “better music” idiom. Divisive though this position may have been in its day, it was James’s stubborn refusal to bow to popular tastes, particularly as it was reflected in the content of his tunebook, that ensured that the music of the Original Sacred Harp would outlive nearly all of the passing fads of its day, and ring louder and in more places than James himself could ever have imagined 100 years later.

Leaders: Steve Helwig and Gosia Perycz 198; Deidre Montgomery 153; Lindsey Wiggins 430; Ben Bath 302; Thom Fahrbach 436; Shelbie Sheppard 269; Aldo Ceresa and Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg 208.

Lesson: Readings on Some Sacred Harp Characters

1:00 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. Buell Cobb welcomed the class. He began with an anecdotal reminiscence of Ruth Denson Edwards, who was an elementary school teacher in Cullman, Alabama, for 46 years and who had taught his father in the 1920’s. He recalled as a child seeing her in a barber shop and identifying her as a purposeful figure. He outlined her personal history, calling her old-fashioned, yet unafraid. He provided an interesting background on her name. Originally named Jerusha, called “Roosh” by her family, she took the name Ruth. Miss Ruth was generally regarded as a spinster, though she had a brief marriage that was never talked about. Her plans carried weight. When she died at the age of 84, she was known for being deliberate and decisive. Buell described her as “Sacred Harp Royalty”, and how singers would seek benediction from her during breaks at singings. She enforced courtesy, just as she expected in her classroom. Her niece, Amanda, recalled to Buell moments when she would expect good behavior, saying “Aunt Ruthie just taught school”.

Buell recalled a visit that Uncle Bob Denson and Miss Ruth made to Ider, Alabama, likening it to a visit by heads of state. When the suggestion was made for Miss Ruth and Uncle Bob to lead together, she made it clear that she wanted to lead her own song. He remembered her with good humored eloquence and poise.

In another sketch, Buell relayed a Civil War story passed down through the Miller family about young Ben Miller, who managed to join the Confederate forces at the age of 14 and was thought by the family to have perished in the conflict. The story memorably ends with the hearing of the song “Antioch.” Following the story, Polish campers Justyna Orlikowska, Gosia Percyz, Peter Zarzycki, and Blazej Matusiak led 277.

Buell remembered Lawrence and Lula Underwood as great characters. He recounted the story of how Lawrence started dating Lula after both their spouses had died. He, a man of few words, and she, a witty woman, made a good pair. He said they got started when Lawrence went to the store where Lula was working and greeted her by saying “I’m looking for a wife or a girlfriend or a cook.”

Buell remembered Annie Jewel Casey Boyd of the “Wiregrass singers” in Ozark, Alabama, as a very vigorous leader. He said the music shot and pulsed through her, it seemed. He recalled her independence, and love of singing. Even though she may have struggled with her walker in her 80 (t? b?)’s, she loved the singing and forgot her enemy of loneliness by having her own singings in her mind. While in a nursing home, she complained about the food. At a singing, she found comfort in food and in community. When she returned home, she could relive her day at the singing and take solace in her memories.

Buell shared a sketch of Buford McGraw and relayed a story about Buford attending the last night of a singing school near Tallapoosa, Georgia, where he led “The American Star,” an unfortunate choice considering the occasion and the inexperienced class, but one which led to a great moment of hilarity. David Ivey led 346.

In his final sketch, Buell shared a story about now 94-year-old Glenn Laminack. Laminack remembered Sacred Harp being the reason for “the worst whipping I ever got.” At a break between songs, his father overheard him say “I wish they’d tree this thing.” About his later punishment that afternoon, Laminack declared, “and I’ve loved this old book ever since!” Buell said that Laminack still enjoys playing the guitar in a band every week. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Learning Songs

1:00 p.m. The Ark. Teachers—Stuart Ivey and Drew Smith. The class, in groups or as individuals, would break down songs they wanted to learn. For each song, the class would determine if it was in major or minor and the mode of time.

Leaders: Kiki Adair and Ben Pilch 159; Elizabeth Betz and Drew Smith 354b; Katy Brown and Dorothy 544; Karley Craft, Jennifer Betz, and Drew Smith 323t; Jacob Acton 551; Jessa Cherones and Drew Smith 299; River Skrenes, Russ Pope, and Stuart Ivey 44; Anna Bowen, Holly Mixon, and Stuart Ivey 31b; Grace Gilmore and Stuart Ivey 208; Ailee Martin and Beth Anne Clay 224; Paula Oliver and Stuart Ivey 300; Robin Betz, Elizabeth Betz, and Stuart Ivey 268; Justin Corbett 119.

Elective: A Sacred Harp Perspective from the 60s and 70s

2:30 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. Buell Cobb welcomed the class. He recounted that his family were singers one and a half generations before him. His grandmother would sing fragments of “The Golden Harp”; she had learned fasola and doremi as a child. In high school, he took his grandparents to a singing at the Cullman County Courthouse. The only thing that left an impression from his first singing was the choreography of a woman leading “Lawrenceburg”.

In college, Mike Hinton lent him the albums of the Sacred Harp Publishing Company, and he was hooked. His family put him in touch with Ruth Denson Edwards, who became his mentor. He attended the Cullman County Convention in 1965 in the new courthouse, and loved it.

Buell said that he saw singings fade and die out in Bibb County. There used to be many more singings, as many as 25 across the South on one Sunday in June. Singing in those days was “all of a piece”; cut from the same fashion, not the diversity we have today. Cullman used to be the largest singing in the country. Over the course of 20 years, a single generation started to die out.

In 1991, NPR did a 14 minute piece on Sacred Harp. The internet has helped Sacred Harp spread incredibly.

Buell said that he went to Auburn for graduate school, and then lived and taught in Carrollton, where Hugh McGraw gook him under his wing. He assisted with book orders, many of which came from California.

Singing in the 60s

Buell said that Sacred Harp was like turning the clock back to a time when people understood life as being hard, who understood what a “rocky road” really was. The singers to him took on a mythic quality. He mentioned that he doesn’t think the singing then was any better overall than it is today, because so many singers today are self-selected, but he misses most the accent—and the surge that those bass classes used to give.

He discussed singing with Marcus Cagle on the front tenor bench. Cagle had sung with people who had sung with B.F. White... amazing sense of continuity.

In 1967-68, Buell said he went to the Alabama-Florida Union Convention, and was the only white person at the singing. He met Dewey Williams there. The singing was so much stronger there than 20 years later. Leaders walked the square, sang staccato, and sang blue notes. Buell sang 58 as an example.

Buell talked about a tension or resistance in the Black singing community, especially from elements in the community who didn’t feel that Sacred Harp (unlike spirituals or gospel music) was their native music. Judge Jackson published the Colored Sacred Harp because he could not get his songs into the Cooper Book. Japheth Jackson, his son and a great singer and leader, passed away last year at the age of 95.

In 1970, Hugh McGraw and eleven other singers were invited to the Smithsonian Folk Festival. Dewey Williams and a similar sized group also went. They all sang together in the evenings. The best leader Buell ever saw was Hugh McGraw in his prime. The most charismatic leader Buell ever saw was Dewey Williams.

He spoke about leaders of that time: Tom Harper and Barrett Ashley, with clapping hands or one hand behind the back. Buell said that Shelbie Sheppard and Reba Dell Windom are reminiscent of these leaders. He spoke of Marie Aldridge and Kathleen Robbins: fluid leaders, bouncing in 4 beats and beating time in 2 beats. He made note of Myrl Jones and Myra Palmer (the Smith sisters), who went to singing school under the direction of Tom Denson. He remembered Elmer Kitchens leading 181.

He spoke of the writer, Eudora Welty, who he once talked with about her reference to Sacred Harp in a story and about her attendance at a courthouse singing. He spoke of the Lee family, as an example of isolated communities of singers, who thought for a time that they were the last Sacred Harp singers.

Buell talked of the many counties that used to have annual Sacred Harp singings in the courthouses. Cullman County is the only remaining one. He said that the Cullman County Convention used to be attended by as many as 5000 people in the 1930s.

Sam Sommers asked if there were multi-book singings in that day. Buell answered that “that” was a contentious issue and generally was not done. It is exceeding loyalty, sometimes verging on intolerance, that has preserved the Sacred Harp tradition. Ben Bath asked a question about leading in 4 beats. Buell answered that he did not see elaborate leading east of Alabama. He said that Hugh McGraw told of teaching a singing school for the Woottens in the early 1970s, and came back with stories of great singers who had narrowed their familiarity with many songs but who beat time in four and had great reverence for the tradition.

Buell told the class that the best class of singers he ever heard was in 1989, when the practice session, before the 1991 edition was published, was held. He said that there were 400 of the best singers alive at that session. Another that he marks as “second best” was the class for the 1976 Bicentennial Album singing, of which the recording is not representative.

Buell thanked the class for their attention, and dismissed them.

Lesson: Leading Boot Camp / Young Adults

4:00 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. Teachers—Shelbie Sheppard and Cassie Allen. Cassie welcomed the class and outlined the format of the class. She said that this class was a workshop and everyone should have a fuguing tune in mind for practice.

Shelbie mentioned that leaders do not have to turn to bring in parts. She reminded everyone not to drop their book on the floor. If the book is not needed, then simply hand it to someone in the front row. Cassie led 155.

Leaders: Ben Vincent 36b; Jonathon Wood 64; Sally Langendorf 40; Molly Ellis 328; Kelly Kennedy 481; Emily Hale-Sills 300; Mel Novner 372.

Other volunteers led songs of their choice, while Shelbie and Cassie gave helpful instruction and constructive criticism. Leaders: Connie Hartley 335; Rhys McGovern 472; Guy Bankes 137; Ben Bath 392; Justyna Orlikowska 209; Liz Kiser 542; Philippa Stoddard 196; Becky Wright 272; Marcus Whitman 107.

Lesson: Accent

4:00 p.m. Genesis Lodge. Robert Kelley started the class by going back to the Rudiments. There are three departments called Rhythmics, Melodics, and Dynamics. Accent is how Sacred Harp singers do dynamics. It is a function of the modes of time. When combining music and poetry, we must deliver the words deliberately and with the correct emphasis. The music determines the timing and the text determines the accent.

Robert said that tune, rhythm, words, and dynamics are four legs of a pillar. On page 16 of the Rudiments, one finds the beginning of the discussion on accent. Syncopation can affect accent, shifting the primary accent to the longer note if it goes with the poetry. Robert pointed out that the word “the” is never an accented syllable in poetry. We always say “the” (“thuh”) unless it is followed by a vowel sound; then the pronunciation is “thee”.

Robert stated that the way you beat time can help the accent. Your hand may move more quickly on accented beats. Sing heavy when your hand is dropping. Primary accent is when your hand starts down, and the secondary accent is when your hand comes up.

The class sang 32t and practiced placing the accent in the correct places. When accenting, your singing should be smooth, not choppy or violent. Unaccented syllables should be quiet. If there is one syllable in a measure, it is either a primary accent or unaccented. You determine this by looking at the surrounding measures. If there are two or three syllables in a measure, there is only the primary, and everything else is unaccented. The class dissected the text and music on 501 and where to accent. Robert advised the class to give a good delivery of the text when it is removed from the singing to get a good sense of the accent of the poetry. For further practice on accent, the class sang 218, and Robert noted the danger of losing the secondary accent completely if you go too fast. The class was given a homework assignment to figure out the accent on 179, and then was dismissed.

Elective: Choosing the Right Song for the Right Time

5:00 p.m. Genesis Lodge. Robert Kelley opened the class with 435, deeming it a nice but peculiar choice as an opening song. He stated that you have to know when it is okay to lead a particular song at a particular singing and when it is not. There are some songs with words that just make them appropriate and others have become traditional openers, like 32t, 37b, or 82t.

Robert suggested that during the first hour of singing you should not lead complex class songs, odes, anthems or set pieces and avoid the songs that “go screaming high”. The officers are led at the beginning and locals follow. It is their job to set the tone and get the class warmed up by leading plain tunes, easy fugues, and camp meeting tunes. Be aware of what time of day it is and let that help you know what songs you should lead. The more difficult songs and “screechers” can be led close to lunchtime. The last session of the day is more difficult when singers are tired. Try to keep the energy up with camp meeting or easy fuguing songs.

Robert suggested making a list of songs that are difficult and easy to help choose the appropriate song for the appropriate time. Take into consideration the number of leaders when choosing song length and number of verses. When calling a class back, choose a song that people know and can sing by memory, singing more than one verse. The first leader after the memorial lesson has a hard time. Robert suggested children leading after the memorial lesson can help change the mood. Alternative suggestions for closing songs are 382 and 521. The class sang 405, 521, and closed with 323t.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. Lakeview Lodge—Youth Girls. David Ivey brought the class to order, and relinquished the floor to Buell Cobb. Buell made a presentation of recognition to the Polish campers.

David then introduced the Youth Girls, who presented an original arrangement of 159.

Cheyenne Ivey and Macy Crawford led 49t. The opening prayer was offered by Jennifer Betz. Leaders: Holly Mixon and Anna Bowen 31b; Jonathan Wood and John Kelso 324; Ben Bath and Kelly Kennedy 81t; Elizabeth Betz, Jennifer Betz, Matthew Betz, and Robin Betz 268; Stuart Ivey and David Ivey 184; Ethan Corbett, Justin Corbett, and Jacob Acton 198; Will Schnorenberg and Tony Kiser 282; Alvaro Duarte and Lindsey Wiggins 99; Mel Novner and Holly Hauck 63; Dave Rivers, Jo Pendleton, and Jonathon Pendleton 163b; Kiki Adair and Emily Kirkland 487; Sally Langendorf and Katy Brown 544; Thom Fahrbach and Drew Smith 225t; Anna Grace Sipe, Ailee Martin, and Beth Anne Clay 155; Ben Pilch, Dan Pilch, Jonathan Pilch, Pam Pilch, and Nicholas Mann 79; Serenity Manning and Lillian Almohajer 313b; Blazej Matusiak, Gosia Percyz, Piotr Zarzycki, and Justyna Orlikowska 165; Dylan Feezell and Tom Malone 145b; Karen Ivey and Konrad Tegtmeier 299; Jennie Brown and Jessa Cherones 107; Christopher Mann and Connie Hartley 278b; Tom George, Eugene Forbes, and Kramer Klein 300; Becky Wright and Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg 283; River Skrenes, Russ Pope, and Vella Dailey 76b.

Cheyenne Ivey led 445 as the closing song. Katy Brown offered the closing prayer. Hannah Polaski presented the devotional and led 146. Following announcements from David Ivey, the class was dismissed.

Thursday, July 7

Lesson: Rudiments III / Youth I / Basics

9:00 a.m. The Ark. Teachers—Stuart Ivey and Lauren Bock. Lauren began with a review, asking questions about the major and minor scale. The class practiced, following Lauren’s pointer on the notes.

Stuart Ivey talked about notation using 49t. Stuart discussed the difference between a slur and a tie. A tie has two notes in different measure. When we sing the same syllable on more than one note that is a slur. On 497, Stuart showed a slur and a tie in the middle of the first brace. On 490, he explained joined flags like a slur for eighth notes. He then explained what a triplet is on 31t, demonstrating how three notes fit into the time for two notes. A bird’s eye is called a “fermata” and stops time.

Lauren Bock added that our Rudiments on page 17 indicate that the bird’s eye note may be held beyond its normal length and is according to the discretion of the leader. Lauren discussed dynamics, explaining forte, fortissimo, piano, and pianissimo. She said dynamics are about volume, how loud or soft we are to sing. She used 177 and 277 as examples.

The class found choice notes on 37b, 506, and 348b, and then discussed which ones to use. Lauren talked about measures and bars. The thicker line is the broad bar at the end of a phrase of poetry. Stuart stated that it also lets us know when something is changing, like the time signature, as shown in 245. A double bar is at the end of every song except when there is a D.C. or “da capo” meaning “to the head”. If you see four dots, you go back to another set of four dots. An example of this is found on 448b where the song ends in the middle.

Stuart reviewed what the class had learned during the week. He also talked about accent, rests, and key signatures. The class sang 108t as a closing song, and was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Youth II / Basics

9:00 a.m. Genesis Lodge. Teachers—Richard Ivey and Tom Malone. Richard Ivey and Dylenn Nelson opened the class by leading 52t. Christopher Mann offered the opening prayer.

Richard reviewed some basics of leading with the class, including the seven time signatures, major and minor scales, fermatas, repeats, D.C., triplets, accent, and syncopation.

Tom Malone led the class in the major scale, intervals, and harmonies. He then did the same with the minor scale, emphasizing tuning going up and down the scale. Tom discussed Sacred Harp songs that have dynamics indicated, looking at 177 led by Connie Hartley and 412 led by Tom Malone.

Richard Ivey reviewed compound time, and Justin Corbett led 64. Russ Pope led 38b as the class listened to the alto’s accidentals. The teachers talked about how to lead a fuging tune and bring in parts. Leaders: Hannah Polaski 150; Jessa Cherones 299; Holly Mixon 142. Richard noted how difficult leading a fuging tune is and that simple, graceful footing is easier and more comfortable for singers to observe and follow. Tom Malone, Anna Grace Sipe, Christopher Mann, and Kelly Kennedy led 211. Emily Kirkland and Tom Malone led 240 to practice dynamics and changes of time signature. Leaders: Marcus Whitman 448t; Katy Brown 318; Rhys McGovern, Dylenn Nelson, and Tom Malone 455. The class sang 550 and Tom George closed with prayer.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. Lakeview Lodge. Ricky Harcrow welcomed the class. He told some humorous stories of his lifetime of singing. He reviewed the fundamentals of singing and leading Sacred Harp songs. The class practiced singing the scales.

Volunteers practiced leading songs of their choice, and then were dismissed.

Elective: More Rudiments

10:30 a.m. Genesis Lodge Teacher—Sam Sommers welcomed the class, and led 56t. He talked about songs that held memories of dear people and how songs can be sung with purpose and intentions in mind. Sam shared that Sacred Harp tradition is passed on by what we have received.

The seven modes of time were reviewed (Rudiments pages 15 and 16), and the concepts of appropriate speeds for the modes and how to beat these modes. Rests were discussed as periods of silence. The class sang the tenor line on 98. Sam talked about fermatas. There was further review of repeats, D.C. and D.S., and the difference between major and minor scales.

Sam said that the tunes are a prelude for the text. The class sang 170 to explore accent in 2/4 time. We should develop good habits. Permission to do quirky things in leading is earned by prominence and experience. Holly Mixon led 250.

Sam pointed out that an anthem need not be long, as in 512. It is an anthem because it has no poetic meter. The class sang 146 and used “Amazing Grace” as the poetry. On singing etiquette, Sam shared some wise suggestions. It is good to have rotation in the rows and to share the front bench. Once on it, you have an obligation to help and follow the leader. It is poor manners to leave a book to mark a front row seat if you wish to be absent awhile. Dress respectfully. Be aware of the tradition of the singing in which you wish to participate. Singers should fulfill their respective duties to the best of their abilities. Pick songs with sensitivity to singers’ desires and the time of day. Keep objections to yourself so as to be kind. Sam led 323t, and dismissed the class.

Lesson: The Memorial Lesson

1:00 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. Karen Rollins welcomed the class. She then gave a definition of the memorial lesson as a period set aside at a singing for the common practice of remembering and honoring the deceased and the sick and shut-ins. She further stated that it is important to honor those who have gone before us. The memorial lesson helps foster a sense of community. It causes us to confront our mortality. It preserves a Sacred Harp tradition. It helps us to grieve, and find comfort.

Karen talked briefly about the history of memorial lessons, stating that not all singing communities conduct memorial lessons during a local singing. Others have held memorial lessons for many years, and still others are new to the tradition.

Karen instructed the class on the implementation of a memorial lesson. She said that one should compile the lists, choose leaders and songs, and choose speakers and topics. Topics could include life and death, grief, memory, history, family, tradition, traveling, and many others.

She opened the floor for questions and discussion. Afterwards, the class held a memorial lesson.

Jeannette DePoy and Henry Johnson conducted the memorial lesson. Jeannette recalled her first experience on the memorial committee. She noted that she almost always laughs or cries during a memorial lesson. Those on the lists are “etched on our hearts”. She read the list of names of the deceased, and led 111b in their memory.

Henry Johnson spoke on behalf of the sick and shut-ins. He reminded the class that there are many ways of visiting those in affliction: cards, letters, e-mails, and phone calls. He equated our lives to those so often referenced rivers in the tunes we sing, with difficult passages or smooth courses. Any crossing could potentially be our last. He led 72b. Matt Hinton offered prayer to close the memorial lesson. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Learning Songs / Youth / Basics

1:00 p.m. The Ark. Teachers—Richard Ivey and Lauren Bock. Richard and Lauren brought the class to order by leading 52t. They discussed things to consider when choosing a song, such as rhythm, melody, text, and fugue. Practice was emphasized.

Leaders: Elizabeth Betz and Richard Ivey 354b; Hannah Polaski 299; Ethan Corbett and Jacob Acton 556; Maci Gouvitsa 45t; Ben Bath and Hannah Tate 269; William Clay 40; Holly Mixon 142; Russ Pope and River Skrenes 117; Anna Hinton 300; Cheyenne Ivey and Dylenn Nelson 186; Jennifer Betz 268; Emily Kirkland and Kiki 558; Drew Smith, Macy Crawford, and Emily Hale-Sills 361; Matthew Betz 146.

Elective: Open the Fifth

2:30 p.m. Lakeview Lodge Teacher—Henry Johnson welcomed the class. He discussed the meaning and importance of harmony. He reviewed the sound of different chords that are “pleasing” and “not pleasing” (discordant). Henry emphasized the variety of chords possible in three and four part songs, and pointed out several unusual chords in songs from a range of time periods.

The class sang 138t, 138b, 435, 113, 374, 99, 460, 406, 55, 426t, 439, 176b, and 39t. The class was dismissed.

Elective: The First New England School—First Generation Fuging tunes in The Sacred Harp

4:15 p.m. Lakeview Lodge. Teacher—Justin Levi.

In and around Boston, Massachusetts, at the beginning of the 18th century, while still a colony of England, a new musical institution made its first appearance in America. These Singing Schools were created to teach young people the ability to read music, often for the first time, and improve the singing of psalms and hymns in church. Plain hymn tunes were taught out of song books imported from England and provided much of the music used for religious services. In many churches, new choirs were formed by the students who typically occupied the gallery, or balcony, of the meetinghouse. Where space permitted, the choir arranged themselves on three sides of the building-the early ancestor of our hollow square. As the century progressed, a new musical form developed that drew from different part singing traditions. These fuging tunes, with their imitative entrances and phrasing, crossed the Atlantic in books along with the plain tunes and became part of the teaching of the singing schools.

Leaders: Connie Hartley 28b; Philippa Stoddard 273; Holly Mixon 142; Cheyenne Ivey 186; Tony Kiser 272; Grace Gilmore 269; Rebekah Gilmore 189; Ethan Corbett “New Jordan” (as printed in the Easy Instructor, 1815); Tom George 444; Beth Anne Clay 218; Justin Corbett 327; Anna Grace Sipe and Christopher Mann 211.

Elective: The Hymns of a Slave-trader and a Madman: Newton and Cowper

4:15 p.m. Genesis Lodge. Matt Hinton welcomed the class. He told the histories of John Newton and William Cowper.

John Newton 1725-1807. In 1725, John Newton was born in London to John and Elizabeth Newton. His mother, Elizabeth Newton died when he was 6 years old.

In 1788, Newton published a polemic against slavery called “Thoughts Upon the Slave Trade”, in which he described the horrific conditions of the slave ships and offered “a confession, which ...comes too late ... It will always be a subject of humiliating reflection to me, that I was once an active instrument in a business at which my heart now shudders.”

In December 1807, Newton died in London, and Britain abolished the slave trade in her colonies.

Newton’s Sacred Harp contributions: 34t The Gospel Pool, 45t New Britain, 52b Charlestown, 56t Columbiana, 56b Villulia, 68b Ortonville, 74b King of Peace, 82b Edgefield, 105 Jewett, 113 The Prodigal Son, 127 Green Fields, 148 Jefferson, 335 Return Again, 451 Mary’s Grief and Joy, 458 Friendship, 523 Pleyel’s Hymn.

William Cowper 1731-1800. In 1731, William Cowper was born the son of John Cowper, the Rector of Great Berkhamsted, and was educated at Westminster School in London.

Cowper’s mother died when he was only six years old and this event had a profound effect upon his already sensitive nature. Cowper died of dropsy in 1800.

William Cowper’s Sacred Harp contributions: 27 Bethel, 168 Cowper, 287 Cambridge, 397 The Fountain, 478 My Rising Sun.

Matt led 45t and 168, and the class was dismissed.

Community Singing

7:00 p.m. Lakeview Lodge—Young Adults. The community singing was brought to order by Deidra Montgomery. The young adults sang a new arrangement by Aldo Ceresa, Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg, and Robert Kelley called “Edomorgand”. Deidra Montgomery led 48t as the opening song. Holly Hauck offered the opening prayer.

Leaders: Connie Hartley and Emily Hale-Sills 376; Lauren Bock and Elizabeth Betz 38t; Ben Pilch and William Clay 159; Erica Hinton and Anna Hinton 40; Lindsey Wiggins and Scott Ivey 428; Guy Bankes and Henry Schuman 549; Emily Kirkland and Mary Gowins 564; Matt King, Russell Pope, and River Skrenes 268; Idy Kiser and Liz Kiser 542; Steve Helwig and Gosia Perycz 228; Susan Harcrow and Maci Gouvitsa 354b; Justin Corbett and Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg 543; B.M. Smith and Margie Smith 225t; Philip Gilmore, Paula Gilmore, Grace Gilmore, and Rebekah Gilmore 448t; Stuart Ivey and Marcus Whitman 324; Rachel Rudi and Dylenn Nelson 155; Nathan Rees and Jeannette DePoy 448b; Carol Munro Mosley, Liz Cantrell, Cornelia Tegtmeier, and Emma Kerry 107; Jennifer Betz, Matthew Betz, and Karley Craft 45t; Sam Sommers and Jonathon Smith 548; Katy Brown and Sally Langendorf 63; David Ivey, Karen Ivey, and Allison Whitener 182; Joanna Lampert and Blazej Matusiak 299; Donna Bell and Eugene Forbes 434; Anna Grace Sipe, Ailee Martin, and Beth Anne Clay 178.

David Ivey reported for the guests that 121 campers from nineteen states, the U.K., and Poland, were present. He recognized twenty-three teachers. All counselors and staff were recognized. Jeff Sheppard commended David Ivey for his efforts in coordinating the schedule for Camp FaSoLa, and the class gave David a big round of applause.

RECESS

The class was brought back to order by Amy Armstrong and Kelsey Sunderland leading 59. Leaders: Sarah Jenkins and Joel Jenkins 222; Tammy Heinsohn 504; Kelly Kennedy and Becky Wright 29t; Justyna Orlikowska and Ben Bath 442; Buell Cobb and Henry Johnson 131b; Dennis George, Tom George, and Jarrod George 318; Mary Elizabeth O’Neal and Lela Crowder 215; Reba Windom and Blake Sisemore 216; Ben Vincent and Justin Levi 217; Cassie Allen and Joan Aldridge 546; Will Schnorenberg and Tony Kiser 272; Hannah Polaski and Dinah East 218; Alvaro Duarte and Robert Kelley 296; Judy Caudle, Loyd Ivey, and Bridgett Kennedy 475; Rodney Ivey and Piotr Zarzycki 177; Sharon DuPriest, Pam Nunn, and Rene Greene 189; Ricky Harcrow and Jackson Harcrow 507; Jeff Sheppard and Deanne McDade 120. David Ivey presented a certificate of appreciation to Deanne McDade, director of Camp Lee.

Leaders: Rhys McGovern and Mel Novner 84; Jo Pendleton, Jonathan Pendleton, Dave Rivers, and Richard Ivey 61; Jessa Cherones and Susan Cherones 74b; Aldo Ceresa, Lauren Bock, and Thom Fahrbach 528.

Deidra Montgomery and Justyna Orlikowska led 347 as the closing song. John Kelso offered the closing prayer, and the class was dismissed.

SHMHA President—Jeff Sheppard; Camp Director—David Ivey