Minutes of Sacred Harp Singings

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Camp Fasola Europe, 2016

Wichrowe, Wzgorze, Chmielno, Kazuby, Poland

September 19-22, 2016

Monday, September 19

Arrival, check-in, and orientation.

Campers arrived to check in, receive their t-shirts, room assignments, and schedules, and settle in. After supper in the Dining Hall, staff and campers met in Oaza Zdrowia for an orientation meeting with Camp Director David Ivey. There were forty-seven campers representing ten countries (Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom-England and Scotland, and USA-10 states).

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. (Group 1). The class was called to order by Eva Striebeck leading 171. Zack Lindahl offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Ruth McNamara 34b; Cath Saunt 276; Zack Lindahl 48t; Ted Brown 47t; Joanna Bennett 168; Magdalena Osthaus 72t; Chris Brown 108b; Eimear O’Donovan 141; Corinna Frische 42; Julius Pasay 270; Sinead Hanrahan 422; Werner Ullah 49t; Amanda Parkes 423; Gerben Vos 377; Jan Geerts 71; David Ivey 540; Jesse P. Karlsberg 202; Kate Kirwan 129; Aldo Ceresa 297; Judy Whiting 441; Samuel Sommers 184; Holly Ruth Gale 479; Ross Harbison 187; Inga Hubner 56b; Harald Grundner 416; Sarah West 216; Oskar Kvasnes 155; Steve Helwig 351; Richard Mayers 299; Elizabeth Stoddard 374; Dan Brittain 309; Richard Schmeidler 475; Thom Fahrbach 310; Kate Coxon 166; Helen Brown 273 (for Kathy Williams).

Eva Striebeck led 521. Zack Lindahl gave the devotional, led 33b, and offered the closing prayer. The class was dismissed.

Tuesday, September 20

Each day, campers were given time for recreation, socializing, and evening singing.

Lesson: Rudiments I / Basics.

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Samuel Sommers. Samuel Sommers introduced himself, and welcomed the class. He led 56t. Samuel suggested that a beginning singer should sing the tenor part, then choose the part that best suits the voice. He introduced the shapes, and the class practiced singing the major scale. He led 358. He pointed out that the last note in the bass part is always the tonic note, and will identify the song as major or minor. Samuel reminded the class that leaders, by definition, are always right. He encouraged campers, when attending a singing, to choose one thing to focus on that day (leading, accent, rests, etc.). He led 132, 121, and 323t, asking the class to focus on the tenor part. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments I / Advanced.

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain. Dan Brittain introduced himself, and welcomed the class. Richard Schmeidler led 565. Dan referred to the Rudiments, and focused on the major scale, explaining that the interval between two notes of the same shape is always a fourth. The class practiced singing the major scale. Dan moved on to talk about keeping time, and stated that the tradition in Sacred Harp was to use a modest up and down motion of the hand and arm. He introduced the modes of time, using the Rudiments from the 1911 James Book, which specified beats per second for each mode of time. The class discussed the more traditional tempos for each mode of time. The class sang 45t, 287, 183, and 268. Dan then referred to page 21 of the Rudiments, and explained the rules and traditions concerning word pronunciation. Dan stated that in two-song lessons, a major song and a minor song are not usually mixed. The class sang 43 and 417, and then 278b and 345b as examples of two-song lessons. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Vocal Health.

10:45 a.m. Teacher-Holly Ruth Gale. Holly Ruth Gale welcomed the class, and shared a hand-out. She outlined the items of the lesson. She stated that vocal health can be achieved by using common sense, such as being rested, having food for energy, and drink for hydration. She pointed out the importance of choosing to sing a part that best suits the voice, changing when needed, and resting when necessary. She gave some examples of physical warm-ups and vocal warm-ups. There was a question and answer period, and the class was dismissed.

Elective: The Life, Letters, and Music of Daniel Read.

1:00 p.m. Teacher-Aldo Ceresa. Aldo began the class by leading 186. He provided two handouts. One handout included a chronology of the life of Daniel Read, copies of drafts of correspondence spanning from 1793-1807, information covering years of his musical development, and pictures of his early manuscripts, handwriting, monuments and grave site. The second handout included several of Read’s songs for the class to sing during the lesson.

Daniel Read grew up on a farm with one season of schooling and no musical training outside of singing schools and learning from his two older brothers. Read began keeping a notebook of his own compositions, which is now in the collection of the New Haven Museum, New Haven, Connecticut. In 1782; Read settled in New Haven, where he opened a successful general store and manufactured horn and ivory combs. In 1785; Read published his first collection, “The American Singing Book”. Read is the second American composer, after William Billings, to publish a book entirely devoted to his own music. The volume went through five editions between the years 1785-1796. Read published “The American Musical Magazine”, which included the tunes “Russia”, “Greenwich”, and Elihu Carpenter’s “Southwell”. The first edition of “The Columbian Harmonist” was published in 1793 and the final edition in 1810, when Read’s musical activities began to decline. Daniel Read died at the age of seventy-nine, and is buried in Grove Street Cemetery near Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. The class sang the following songs: “Norwich”, “Stafford”, “Lisbon”, “Smithfield”, and 38b, 38t, 150, 50t, 300, 107, and 183. Aldo read excerpts from letters. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Music and Influence of O.A. Parris.

2:15 p.m. Teacher-Jesse P. Karlsberg. Jesse welcomed the class, and Amanda Parkes led 546. Jesse gave campers a supplementary hand-out, which included a number of songs not published in The Sacred Harp. Orin Adolphus Parris was born on December 16, 1897, to Oscar Hayden Parris and Ada Odelia Morris Parris. When his father died, and his mother remarried, he moved to live with his uncle, John Godbee, and his aunt, Susan Godbee. He dropped out of school after finishing the eighth grade, and declined further formal education. Later, his son, Heflin, would remark on his extraordinary memory, and vast knowledge and skill despite the lack of education. Parris was known to have said that because there is no do (dough) in Sacred Harp, he chose to write gospel music instead. Parris composed in every gospel idiom, and contributed regularly to songbooks published by James D. Vaughan, and the Stamps-Baxter Music Company. Parris established a publishing company, the Denson-Parris Music Company, with S. Whitt Denson in the early 1930s. Leaders: Sarah West 349; Joanna Bennett 377; Thom Fahrbach “A Few More Tears”. After losing access to the technology needed to print shape-note tunebooks in the mid-1940s, he partnered with the National Music Company, and then with the Stamps Quartet Music Company. Leaders: Aldo Ceresa “God’s Helping Hand”; Kate Kirwan “Weary Rest”; Sadhbh O’Flynn “Then I’ll Be Satisfied”. Parris continued editing tunebooks and composing new songs late in life for the Convention Music Company in Birmingham, Alabama, where he lived. He died in 1966. Sinead Hanrahan led 454 as the closing song, and the class was dismissed.

Lesson: How to Beat the 7 Modes of Time.

3:30 p.m. Teacher-David Ivey. David welcomed the class, and described keeping time as moving from bar to bar throughout the music. He referred to page 16 of the Rudiments and demonstrated moderate downward and upward strokes of the hand and arm at an appropriate tempo, so that accent can be done correctly. David led 313b (2/2 common time); 84 (2/4 common time); 410t (3/2 triple time); 348b (3/4 triple time); 65 (6/4 compound time); 275b (6/8 compound time); 387 (time changes). David said that many songs lend themselves to a wide variation in tempo, but some do not. He encouraged campers to always carefully watch the leader.

Lesson: Scales and Intervals.

3:30 p.m. Teacher-Samuel Sommers. Samuel led 25. He talked about the importance of singing and knowing the scale. The class sang selections from the White Book Rudiments. He led 359. Jan Geerts led 188. Samuel pointed out that camp is a good opportunity to practice singing intervals, which may mean singing unfamiliar parts. He led 91. Kate Coxon led 220. Samuel led 54. Samuel urged the class to sing their part while listening to another in order to hear and enjoy discord. He led 358, and the class was dismissed.

Elective: Learning Songs.

4:45 p.m. Teacher-Helen Brown. Helen welcomed the class, and led 34b. Helen said it is important to know the tones well. The class practiced singing scales and intervals in both major and minor. She led 49t. Helen stressed the importance of knowing a song by observing time signature, tempo, repeats (both internal and optional), rests, holds (bird’s eyes), fugues, and end bars (number of pages in a song). She suggested listening to tapes, with song book in hand. The class sang 52t, 63, 39t, 49b, 131b, 209, 159, 468, and 146. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Keying Music.

4:45 p.m. Teacher-David Ivey. David and the class discussed reasons for learning to key. The most common reason was necessity. David referred to page 12 of the Rudiments, and noted that there are many ways to learn to key: knowing the tones of the scales, understanding one’s range of voice, using keys of known songs as the basis for keys of other songs, and listening to experienced keyers. He gave some examples of songs that may present a challenge, and noted that the keyer should strive to make the class sound good. He related that consistent keying adds to the success of a singing day. The following campers practiced keying their songs: Zack Lindahl 53; Thom Fahrbach 125; Steve Helwig 127. The class was dismissed.

Class Singing.

7:30 p.m. (Group 2). Richard Mayers called the class to order by leading 312b, and then he offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Inga Hubner 49b; Ulricke Tietjen 375; Elizabeth Stoddard 67; Camilla Widholm 272; Helen Brown 300; Kate Coxon 215; Richard Schmeidler 474; Zack Lindahl 306; Thom Fahrbach 327; Jasmina Graf 271t; Dan Brittain 465; Cath Saunt 91; Ruth McNamara 274t; Gosia Perycz 58; Sadhbh O’Flynn 394; Ted Brown 549; Eva Striebeck 222; Alma Moledys 70b; Joanna Bennett 380; Jesse P. Karlsberg 353; Julius Pasay 111b; Amanda Parkes 298; Holly Ruth Gale 59; Jan Geerts 500; Eimear O’Donovan 177; Steve Helwig 101b; Kate Kirwan 545; Oskar Kvasnes 46; Chris Brown 48b; Sula O’Duffy 117; Magdalena Osthaus 432; Gerben Vos 181; Sinead Hanrahan 522; Corinna Frische 515.

Richard Mayers led 56t as the closing song. Harald Grundner gave the devotional, and led 308. Elizabeth Stoddard offered the closing prayer.

Campers were treated to a Kashubian Folk Dance performance.

Wednesday, September 21

Lesson: Rudiments II / Basics.

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Samuel Sommers. Samuel Sommers welcomed the class, and led 76t. He outlined the class on Rhythmics, and proceeded to demonstrate keeping time. He stated that moderate downward and upward strokes of the hand and arm were much preferred. He encouraged campers to keep time within a range from about chin to waist, and to avoid flicking the wrist or bouncing at the end of the beat. Samuel reviewed each mode of time, and also demonstrated methods of observing a fermata. The class discussed repeats, ties, slurs, and joined flags. Leaders: Zack Lindahl 70t; Inga Hubner 68b; Magdalena Osthaus 80t; Jasmina Graf 229; Gosia Percyz 385t; Gerben Vos 403; Eimear O’Donovan 438; Julius Pasay 417; Samuel Sommers 24b. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments II / Advanced.

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain. Dan provided the class with a handout of the modes of time, and explained the modes of time. The class discussed the speed in which each mode is beaten. Dan reviewed songs, drawing attention to traditional practices. Dan turned to 302 and 314, pointing out the slurs and ties. He demonstrated how to beat the time and sing the syllables. The class went over songs that are considered exceptions to the general rules for tempo, and those included 360, 376, 34t, 73t, and 163t. He used the songs on pages 387, 329, and 408, noting the time changes, and explaining how to beat the time and the customary tempos for these songs. Dan stated that even though we have these guidelines, it is best to always respect the local traditions. The class sang 57, and was dismissed.

Elective: Concords and Discords.

10:45 a.m. Teacher-Jesse P. Karlsberg. Jesse welcomed the class, and read from the Rudiments, page 22, section 8. Jesse and the class sang some examples of concords and discords, encouraging campers to listen closely. He said that the idea of what is a concord vs. discord can be both a personal thing and a cultural thing. In other words, it varies. Jesse led 348b, then the class sang just the half notes. Discussion was centered around why each of the tonic chords in that song sounded different. The reason is inversions. Jesse again referred to the Rudiments, page 22, section 10. Jesse and the class sang the example on page 22, section 6, to place the chords in context. They examined the songs on pages 406, 76b, 303, 36b, 59, 549, 82t, 414, 122, 99, 418, and 318, singing some of the chords in each song. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Minor Music.

1:00 p.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain. Dan welcomed the class, and led 29b. The class sang minor songs, analyzing and comparing one minor song to another. Dan gave some background information on some of the composers, including Jeremiah Ingalls, M. Mark Wynn, and O.A. Parris. The class sang 32b, 36t, 47b, 53, 209, 211, 214, 224, 240, 268, 375, and 377. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: The Music and Life of S.M. (Seab) Denson.

2:15 p.m. Teacher-Jesse P. Karlsberg. Jesse welcomed the class. Thom Fahrbach led 314. Seaborn McDaniel Denson was born in Randolph County, Alabama, and spent his early years working on his father’s plantation. He was not well educated, spending only a few months each year in school. Seab was an accomplished fiddle player from a very musical family. His brother, T.J. Denson, was a prolific composer of Sacred Harp music, and a renowned singing school teacher. Seaborn also composed Sacred Harp songs, and added many alto parts to other songs. Jesse led “Welcome, Sweet Day”. In 1909; S.M. Denson was brought into the United Convention project to revise The Sacred Harp, and publish a supplement. He served as musical editor of the Union Harp, a stylistically valued companion to The Sacred Harp, and contributed twenty-one songs to the book. Leaders: Sadhbh O’Flynn “The Great Provider”; Amanda Parkes 430; Jasmina Graf “Cullman”; Eimear O’Donovan “Casander”. Denson collaborated with J.S. James during the revival wars, adding eighty percent of the alto parts, some original writings, and some from other books, completing the task in less than one year. He also composed three very popular songs in one day (“Eternal Home”, “Praise God”, and “Morning Sun”). Leaders: Elizabeth Stoddard 336; Judy Whiting 328; Sinead Hanrahan 436. When James died in 1933; Denson bought the rights to the Sacred Harp Publishing Company, but then died himself before the 1936 edition of The Sacred Harp was published. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Leading Workshop.

3:30 p.m. Teacher-Helen Brown. Helen welcomed the class, and led 68b. She referred to the Rudiments, page 16, section 15, reading the instruction concerning tempo. Helen encouraged campers to select a song to lead, and she offered constructive criticism and suggestions to improve their abilities. The following songs were chosen by the class for practice: 507, 71, 94, 276, 153, 193, 340, 91, and 178. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Accent.

3:30 p.m. Teacher-Jesse P. Karlsberg. Jesse explained that accent is part of the Rhythmics section of the Rudiments, and shows emphasis to certain notes within each mode of time. Accent gives structure to the melodies, brings voices together for a more uniform sound, and becomes a driving force for the music. Jesse reviewed the modes of time, explaining where the accent falls in each. Jesse selected songs on pages 70t, 53, 530, and 385b to demonstrate simple accent in common time. He directed the class to pages 422 and 455, to see what conditions might alter accent. He led 65 and 360 to practice accent in compound time. Jesse used 274t, 122, and 504 as examples of songs where the rules for accent don’t necessarily apply, or the poetic accent wins over musical accent. The class sang 209, and was dismissed.

Elective: I Never Will Unloose My Hold.

4:45 p.m. Teacher-Aldo Ceresa. Aldo welcomed the class. He gave the definition of fermata, what it looks like (bird’s eye), and how it is used in music. He said that half-measure downbeat holds are the common, and usually double the length of the note in common and compound time (48t and 404), and extra measure duration in triple time (569b). Aldo said that half-measure upbeat holds were less common, and used 59 and 163t as examples. The class sang 96, 316, and 550 as examples of holds on the third beat in common time. The class sang 198 and 567 to practice full measure holds. Off-beat and unusual holds can be found on pages 37t, 321, and 543. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Newton and Cowper.

4:45 p.m. Teacher-Chris Brown. Chris welcomed the class, and reminded everyone that poetry gives our music its atmosphere. Words help us communicate with one another. Sometimes the words of a song will determine what time of day it’s led, or if a song may be appropriate for the memorial lesson. The Olney Hymns were published in 1792, and contain 348 (t? b?) hymns in three books. Topics include scriptural texts, texts on occasional subjects, and spiritual life. Twenty-one songs in The Sacred Harp use texts from the Olney Hymns. Ross Harbison led 148. Chris described the life of John Newton, as well as his friendship with William Cowper, and their involvement with the evangelical community. Cowper believed in predestination, and that he had not been called (that he was damned), and yet he still wrote songs full of enthusiasm. Helen Brown led “Cleansing Fountain”. Steve Helwig led 27. Cowper and Newton lived near one another, often walking together or tending their gardens together. Newton began to offer weekly Bible classes. Cowper began operating as an unofficial curate, leading prayers and singing. In 1791; Newton and Cowper began working together on the Olney Hymns. Richard Schmeidler led 287. Chris talked more of Newton’s and Cowper’s relationship, and their continued writing of spiritual texts. Their texts became popular in America because of camp meetings, with different hymns illustrating different stages in the conversion process. Leaders: Ted Brown 74b; Elizabeth Stoddard “In Evil Long”; Sula O’Duffy 105; Richard Schmeidler 113; Eimear O’Donovan 34t; Eva Striebeck 56b; Kate Coxon 127; Judy Whiting “Texas”. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Future of Camp FaSoLa Europe 7:00 p.m. Director-David Ivey. David met with a number of campers to discuss topics concerning the future of Camp FaSoLa Europe. Points of discussion included local participation, advertising, price factors, camp sites, and camp dates.

Class Singing.

7:30 p.m. (Group 3). The class was called to order by Corinna Frische leading 144. Jasmina Graf offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Cath Saunt 101t; Zack Lindahl 189; Harald Grundner 312t; Sula O’Duffy 38b; Steve Helwig 323b; Alma Moledys 375; Sadhbh O’Flynn 346; Camilla Marie Widholm 196; Elizabeth Stoddard 399t; Julius Pasay 175; Joanna Bennett 532; Jan Geerts 91; Eimear O’Donovan 285t; Thom Fahrbach 426t; Richard Mayers 198; Inga Hubner 94; Jasmina Graf 448t; Richard Schmeidler 543; Ross Harbison 500; Gerben Vos 430; Kate Kirwan 406; Ulricke Tietjen 113; Sarah West 342; Gosia Percyz 133; Judy Whiting 318.

Corinna Frische led 146 as the closing song. Ted Brown gave the devotional, and dismissed the class with prayer.

Thursday, September 22

Lesson: Rudiments III / Basics.

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Samuel Sommers. Samuel welcomed the class, and led 477. He said that accent is stress of voice or emphasis on one part of a sentence, strain, or measure. There is both primary and secondary accents in music. He led 177. He continued by talking about dynamics, both written and unwritten. He led 412 and 143. There was discussion with the class about traditional customs concerning dynamics, and the class was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Advanced.

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain. Dan welcomed the class, and led 90. Dan reviewed points about accent, and referred to the song on page 70t, stating that accent is straightforward. Then he asked the class to note the song on page 28t, where accent creates a thunder and lightning effect. The class sang 49t. Dan made the observation that this old hymn is sung often, and tempos vary from place to place. Dan led 48t, demonstrating how to observe the hold. The class sang 416, first with the alto part, and then without the alto (which was added in 1971). Dan reviewed the modes of time, and the class was dismissed.

Elective: Songs of P. Dan Brittain.

10:45 a.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain. Dan welcomed the class, and passed out a booklet of his compositions to campers. The class sang selections from the booklet, and Dan made comments about the songs. Leaders: Dan Brittain “Chmielno”, “Dean Street”; Samuel Sommers “Garden State”; Jesse P. Karlsberg “Redding”; Thom Fahrbach “Maquoketa”; Elizabeth Stoddard “Kittery”; Sarah West “Dow”; Dan Brittain “Cowling”, “Hauff”, “Beard”, “Pohick”, “Steel”, “Ruth”, and “Self Examination”. The class was dismissed.

Elective: 50th Anniversary of the 1966 Revision.

1:00 p.m. Teacher-Aldo Ceresa. Aldo welcomed the class, and led 569b. Aldo said that Hugh McGraw spearheaded the movement to make the 1966 Revision. Aldo talked about the 1960 edition of The Sacred Harp and its flaws, then talked about the improvements and corrections made for the 1966 Revision. The class sang selections from a hand-out, and also songs that were added in the 1966 Revision, including “Martyrdom”, 479, 473, 513, 515, 566, 506, 571, 505, and “Seek His Blessings”. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: The Memorial Lesson.

2:15 p.m. Teachers-Helen Brown and Ted Brown. Helen and Ted welcomed the class, and Helen led 565. Ted and Helen each talked of their experiences when they first attended a memorial lesson.

Ted talked about the history of the memorial lesson, stating that it was a way to catch up on news. He mentioned that the memorial lesson was not always included in the recording of the minutes, and was known by other names, such as the special lesson or the funeral lesson. Ted noted that the Rudiments do not give any guidelines for this service, so he related his observations of memorial lessons. A person is usually invited or appointed to participate. There is usually a short talk or reflection, the lists of names will be read, and a song led in honor of the sick and housebound, and one for the deceased. The memorial lesson is closed with prayer.

Helen related that the memorial lesson is a great source of support and comfort. Grief can provoke overwhelming emotions, and the support of the Sacred Harp family can ease the pain. The memorial lesson directs our thoughts to human mortality, and to hope for the hereafter.

Sula O’Duffy spoke on behalf of the sick and housebound, and read a poem. Joanna Bennett read the following list of names: Sister Pippa, Karen Turner, Cath Tyler, Curtis Owen, Edith Owen, Johnny Lee, Delorese Lee, Nate Green, Norma Green, Laura Densmore, Issy Kellaway, Dominika Jedrzejczak, Sheena McMain, Kathy Williams, Bruce Rowland, Bill Kerridge, Eloise Wootten, Brian Morrisroe, and Bruce Rye. Sinead Hanrahan led 531.

Ulrike Tietjen spoke of loss, sadness, a sense of emptiness, and anger. She said there is need for words, ritual, and music. Joanna Bennett read the following list of names of the deceased: Rina Rogers, Irene Smith, Eamon Smith, Gillian Woodward, David Smith, Ian Whiting, Eileen Wilson, and Ruth Steggles—England; Eileen McDougall—France; Sylvia Smail—Scotland; Mary Kennedy—Ireland; Brunhilde Laabs and Chris Holloway—Germany; Gary Smith, S.T. Reed, and Toney Smith—Alabama, USA; Earlis McGraw and B.M. Smith—Georgia, USA; Janelle Davis—Illinois, USA; David Strother and Frances Bliss—Maine, USA; Jim Gray—Michigan, USA; Charlie Derleth—Missouri, USA; Ann Henry—New York, USA; Oliver Kindig-Stokes—Pennsylvania, USA; Tom Robinson and Jimmie Foreman—Texas, USA. Richard Mayers led 465 in memory of the deceased. Eimear O’Donovan closed the memorial service with prayer. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: Leading Workshop.

3:30 p.m. Teacher-Helen Brown. Helen welcomed the class, and led 52t. She stated that the key to effective leading is communication with the class. Campers led songs of their choice to practice leading skills. The class was dismissed.

Lesson: And Then I’ll Be At Rest.

3:30 p.m. Teacher-Samuel Sommers. Samuel welcomed the class, and led 43. He stated that a rest is a period of silence within time, meaning no foot tapping, or other sounds to keep the beat. Leaders: Jasmina Graf 71; Samuel Sommers 98; Gosia Percyz 330t; Jan Geerts 70t. Samuel talked about giving rests the same integrity as the notes. Sing every rest with impunity. Leaders: Corinna Frische 26; Thom Fahrbach 280; Samuel Sommers 29b; Sadhbh O’Flynn 254; Sarah West 38b. Samuel asked campers a question for thought: “What song in the Sacred Harp book ends with a rest?” The class was dismissed.

Elective: Conduct and Care of Conventions and Singings.

4:45 p.m. Teachers-David Ivey and Jesse P. Karlsberg. Jesse led 24b. David and Jesse alternated in covering the points outlined on page 25 of the Rudiments, Chapter XI. David talked about tradition as usual and customary, not recreating the past. Singings and conventions of this era are conducted with a practical approach to things that suit the circumstances. Jesse pointed out that conventions have changed with time. Many practices have been retained, such as the memorial lesson, while others have altered, such as less formality and shorter business sessions. The teachers and the class participated in a question and answer session, with David and Jesse addressing such things as how to raise funds and promotion, arranging committee, resolutions committee, dinner on the ground, and the expectations of visiting singers. David thanked the class for their participation, and dismissed the class.

Class Singing.

7:30 p.m. (Group 4). The class was called to order by Julius Pasay leading 146. The opening prayer was offered by Gerben Vos. Leaders: Camilla Marie Widholm 440; Corinna Frische 126; Sinead Hanrahan 123t; Ruth McNamara 340; Ted Brown 479; Sarah West 361; Lloy Cook 276; Alma Moledys 268; Isabel Corfe 38b; Inga Hubner 193; Ross Harbison 282; Jasmina Graf 102; Aldo Ceresa 280; Richard Mayers 412; Cath Saunt 29t; Dan Brittain 170; Gerben Vos 448b; Werner Ullah 49t; Magdalena Osthaus 564; Oskar Kvasnes 63; David Ivey 210; Judy Whiting 521; Elizabeth Stoddard 424; Gosia Percyz 352; Jan Geerts 497; Eva Striebeck 491; Thom Fahrbach 560; Helen Brown 422; Sula O’Duffy 277; Samuel Sommers 437; Kate Kirwan 442; Ulrike Tietjen 224; Eimear O’Donovan and Sadhbh O’Flynn 64; Chris Brown 447; Amanda Parkes 345t; Richard Schmeidler 155; Joanna Bennett 506; Harald Grundner 74t; Jesse P. Karlsberg 208.

Julius Pasay led 69t as the closing song. Jan Geerts gave the devotional, and Sarah West offered the closing prayer.

There were many expressions of thanks to the teachers for their preparations and willingness to share. David Ivey made closing comments. The class was dismissed.

Campers met on Friday morning for breakfast, and then departed.

SHMHA President and Camp Director—David Ivey