Minutes of Sacred Harp Singings

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Camp Fasola, 2015, Youth Emphasis

Camp Lee, Anniston, Alabama

July 6-10, 2015

Arrival, Registration, and Orientation

Registration for Camp FaSoLa 2015, Youth Session, began at 4:00 p.m. Campers were issued t-shirts, procedures lists, maps, and identification badges. Campers had free time for recreation, followed by counselor orientation sessions, then dinner at 6:00 p.m. Every one attending camp met with David Ivey in Lakeview Lodge at 7:00 p.m. for orientation and instruction.

Monday, July 6

Class Singing (Counselors)

7:30 p.m. Chris Coughlin brought the class to order leading 35. Nathan Rees offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Chris Coughlin, Isaac Lloyd, Justin Corbett, Jacob Acton, and Samuel Williams 101t; Lela Crowder, Lilly Underwood, Fiona Nugent, Julia Edwards, Evie Eddins, Jessa Cherones, Katy Brown, and AnnaMarie Bethune 274t; Drew Smith, Ethan Corbett, River Skrenes, and Nicholas Thompson 270; Rebecca Eldridge, Mary Andrews, Sierra Saylors, Mattie Sue Prewett, Lainey Martin, Eva Grace Horsley, and Karis Askin 33b; Tom George, Carter Cook, Wyatt Denney, and Eli Eddins 29t; Cheyenne Ivey, Ruby Francis, Julia Rikansrud, Sallie Rikansrud, and Lina Silva 354t; Alvaro Duarte, Spencer Hegwood, Gideon Lloyd, Jared Pope, and Faiz Wareh 49t; Ellen Culpepper, Dorothy Brown, Annaliza Cull, Anna Hinton, Tullaia Powell, and Jade Thompson 155; Rachel Rudi, Mary Andrews, Courtney Baine, Anna Bowen, Holly Mixon, and Emily Eddins 182; Evangeline Schultz, Vale Cofer-Shabica, and Joanna Nicovich 442; Mike Richards and Jerusha Wheeler 455; Daniel Bearden, Steve Brett, and Brian Harris 351; Keven Beirne, Laura Dempsey, and Lynn Wilson 68b; Nicole Bowman and Ryan Bowman 310; Kevin Eddins, Dana Eddins, Elam Eddins, Ewan Eddins, Ezra Eddins, Eli Eddins, Edith Eddins, Ethan Eddins, Emily Eddins, and Evie Eddins 474; Sam Culpepper and Philip Denney 84; Micah John Walter and Guy Bankes 348t; Paula Oliver, Kate Fortin, and Amandeep Gill 110; Laura Hodges and Jesse Polhemus 203; Devereux Fuller, Joanne Fuller, and Ruby Francis 388; Michael Darby and Laura Ann Russell 542; Stuart Ivey and Ewan Eddins 300; James Nugent and Will Schnorenberg 168; Tarik Wareh, Patti Wareh, and Cora Wareh 297; David Saylors, Teresa Saylors, and Sierra Saylors 209; Rodney Ivey, Judy Caudle, and Bridgett Hill Kennedy 31t; Aldo Ceresa, Pam Nunn, and Angela Myers 200; Vickie Cook and Karen Ivey 34b; Philippa Stoddard and Owen Stoddard 171; Jim Neal and Donnie Simmet 73t; David Ivey, Jonathon Smith, and Nathan Rees 303; Scott DePoy, Jeannette DePoy, and Caelan Tree Treacy 201. Alvaro Duarte conducted the evening devotional, and led 330b, followed by the closing prayer.

Tuesday, July 7

Every day there are lessons, electives, opportunities for recreation or relaxation, recess periods with snacks, and an evening class singing, along with opportunities to socialize.

Lesson: Rudiments I/Youth I

9:00 a.m. Teachers—Stuart Ivey and Scott DePoy. Stuart explained the definition of music as a succession of pleasing sounds. A game was played to learn the major and minor scales. Stuart talked about rhythmics. The class looked at whole, half, quarter, eighth, and sixteenth notes and rests, and determined the duration of each one. Scott DePoy demonstrated good and bad tone, high and low pitch, fast and slow time, and volume. Stuart told the class that the right note at the wrong time is a wrong note. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments I/Youth II

9:00 a.m. Teacher—Nathan Rees. The class began by playing a game of Sacred Harp trivia. Nathan stated that the basic aspects of Sacred Harp are found in the Rudiments, and that learning intervals is important. The class sang the scales and practiced intervals. The following songs were sung: 163b, 407, 359, and 116. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments I/Adults

9:00 a.m. Teacher—David Ivey. David opened the class reading Genesis 1:1-5, and spoke of how music has been in existence from the beginning. He noted that humans have been putting form to music for the past one thousand years and that most of us have learned music by hearing it. He explained the goal of the Rudiments is to help us better understand the music we sing. On page 13 of the Rudiments, David discussed the significance of the “G” or treble clef and the “F” or bass clef. Sacred Harp singing uses relative pitch, but having knowledge of the notes, scales, and pitch is important. The class sang the major scale in unison, referring to page 18 of the Rudiments, and sang several scale drills. David led 49t with the class singing in parts, and then the class sang each line of notes, and then the words in parts. David mentioned the significance of the leader’s arm and mouth movements, and emphasized the importance of the front two rows watching the leader. The class sang the notes to 169, 188, 103, 198, 143, and the notes and words to 103. Class dismissed.

Elective: Team Tunesmith I—Sacred Harp Composition 101 (t? b?)

10:30 a.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. The class began by singing 101t. Aldo stated that B.F. White’s inclusion of tunes by fellow singers enriched the repertoire and fostered greater community among singers. Our purpose is to write music to be sung by Sacred Harp singers: a gift we are giving to our friends. Aldo gave the following to think about when composing: learn from living composers and seek out comments from them; sing your own music; learn the function and characteristics of each voice part; study Sacred Harp harmony; make sure your tune is in the correct mode of time and key; keep accent in mind to follow the poetry. Aldo reminded the new composers that writing involves a lot of trial and error. Aldo broke down each part and discussed what to think about when writing each one. Class members were divided into eight groups of three to work on their compositions. Aldo remarked that this was the largest tunesmith group ever! Class was dismissed.

Elective: Dinner on the Ground

10:30 a.m. Teacher—Karen Ivey. Karen presented some useful tips on preparing, packaging, and transporting dinner to Sacred Harp singings. The presentation included practical information, some fun stories, and class discussion. The class made punch bowl cakes from Marie Ivey’s recipe. Participants could also make a Camp Fasola cookbook with recipes from singers and their family members. Great information was shared about the dinner on the ground tradition as a necessary part of a successful Sacred Harp singing.

Lesson: And Then I’ll Be At Rest

1:00 p.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. Aldo provided a handout stating the definition of a rest and the importance of giving the proper observance of rests. The class led the following songs, paying special attention to commonly missed and poorly executed rests. Leaders: Alvaro Duarte 149; Vale Cofer-Shabica 71; Kevin Beirne 457; Amandeep Gill 38b; Evangeline Schultz 49t; Philippa Stoddard 156; Faiz Wareh 232; Jesse Polhemus 234; Judy Caudle 292; Nicholas Thompson 522; Aldo Ceresa 39t and 365. Class dismissed.

Elective: Rudiments Applied/Sight-reading

2:10 p.m. Teacher—Stuart Ivey. The class sang the major scale and practiced intervals. Stuart stated the focus would be on intervals and learning to sing unfamiliar songs. The class was directed to 351, 188, 99, and 216. A handout of “Tools for Sight-reading” was provided. Stuart discussed starting pitch, rhythmic structure, interval combinations, and scale patterns from the handout. Stuart demonstrated the importance of singing the tenor line when leading by having the class say The Pledge of Allegiance while he said The Lord’s Prayer. Sight-reading exercises, composed by Stuart, were practiced. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Leading Workshop/Adults

3:30 p.m. Teachers—Bridgett Hill Kennedy and Judy Caudle. The students worked on the basics of how to lead and how to communicate to the class at a Sacred Harp Singing. Leaders: Bridgett Hill Kennedy 82t; Philip Denney 448t; Wyatt Denney 542; Kevin Beirne 142; Brian Harris 128; Nicholas Thompson 528; Fiona Nugent 385b; Micah John Walter 228; Nate Schultz 371; Susan Cherones 65; Steve Brett 316; Chris Coughlin 179; Sally Langendorf 310; Judy Caudle 362. Class dismissed.

Lesson: I Will Never Unloose My Hold

3:30 p.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. The class began with Aldo leading 347. A handout was provided titled “A Practical Guide to Fermatas in the Sacred Harp”. Aldo made the statement “No pause should ever give pause to a prospective leader; no hold should ever hold us back”. Aldo discussed common time in reference to holds and stated that the downbeat hold should double the length of the note. Laura Ann Russell led 48b to demonstrate. Watching the leader’s hand motion and mouth helps the singer to follow with more accuracy. The class looked at holds in triple time. Daniel Bearden led 569t to demonstrate. Jerusha Wheeler led 163t and Ezra Eddins led 487 to demonstrate a half measure hold. Songs with holds on the third beat were discussed, as in 96 and 316. Evangeline Schultz led 96 and Daniel Bearden led 543. Michael Darby led 198 to demonstrate a full measure hold, and fermatas positioned at the end of a song were discussed. The class looked at different off-beat and unusual holds as in 321, 507, and 518. Aldo led 55 to end the lesson.

Elective: Keying Music

4:45 p.m. Teacher—David Ivey. David stated that keying is an art, and the basic thing to master is the scale. The class was directed to page 17, Chapter III of the Rudiments. David made several suggestions about learning to key: begin at smaller local singings; know about your own voice and how the notes sound in your head; set the tonic note so that the other relative tones may be sounded comfortably; listen critically to the sounds at a singing. The tonic note determines the pitch for every piece of music. The bass part always ends on the tonic. The remaining time was spent with students practicing keying songs. Class dismissed.

Class Singing (Youth Boys)

7:30 p.m. The class was called to order by Wyatt Denney leading 100. Drew Smith offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Chris Coughlin, Justin Corbett, and Nicholas Thompson 131b; Alvaro Duarte and Isaac Lloyd 24t; Tom George 31b; Jesse Polhemus and Caelan Treacy 215; Anna Bowen, Faith Riley, and Mary Andrews 448b; Julia Edwards and Fiona Nugent 385b; Samuel Williams, Rebecca Eldridge, and Richard Ivey 448t; Idy Kiser, Holly Mixon, and Jade Thompson 354b; Tarik Wareh, Patti Wareh, Cora Wareh, Kate Agnew, Nancy Agnew, and Anna Strickland 535; Steve Brett and Jerusha Wheeler 170; Jeannette DePoy, Kate Fortin, and Philippa Stoddard 492; Donnie Simmet and Owen Stoddard 75; Judy Caudle, Cheyenne Ivey, and Jacob Acton 282; Bridgett Hill Kennedy, Susan Cherones, and Russell Pope 212; Paula Oliver and Laura Hodges 114; Aldo Ceresa, Faiz Wareh, and Vale Cofer-Shabica 477; Stuart Ivey, Ryan Bowman, and Nicole Bowman 503; Philip Denney, Guy Bankes, and James Nugent 327; Nathan Rees, River Skrenes, and Jared Pope 496; Pam Nunn and Angela Myers 87; Ezra Eddins, Ewan Eddins, Sam Culpepper, and Ellen Culpepper 89; Karen Ivey, Joanne Fuller, and Brian Harris 176t; Devereux Fuller and Ruby Francis 168; Rodney Ivey, Jonathon Smith, and Caleb Silva 347; Mike Richards, Will Schnorenberg, and Daniel Bearden 488; Jim Neal and Sallie Rikansrud 77t; Drew Smith, Nathanael Schultz, Amandeep Gill, and Micah John Walter 267; Sally Langendorf, Katy Brown, and Dorothy Brown 111t; Carter Cook and Gideon Lloyd 346; Sierra Saylors, Tullaia Powell, Annaliza Cull, and Karis Askin 300; Eli Eddins, Elam Eddins, and Eve Grace Horsely 481; Kevin Eddins, Abbie Glen, and Chrissy Glen 235; Anna Hinton, Lilly Underwood, AnnaMarie Bethune, Emily Eddins, and Mattie Sue Prewett 146; Dana Eddins, Edith Eddins, Michael Darby, and Laura Ann Russell 566; Lynn Wilson, Laurie Dempsey, and Kevin Beirne 504; Rachel Rudi, Evangeline Schultz, Evie Eddins, and Joanna Nicovich 277. Wyatt Denney led 46 as the closing song. Drew Smith offered the closing prayer. The devotional was held at the campfire.

Wednesday, July 8

Lesson: Rudiments II/Youth II

9:00 a.m. Teachers—Nathan Rees and Richard Ivey. Nathan and Richard led 48t. A hand-out was provided displaying interval exercises. After singing the major and minor scales with intervals, Nathan proceeded to explain the modes of time. Richard reviewed pages 15 and 16 of the Rudiments, and the class sang songs in each mode of time. Primary and secondary accents were explained. Nathan presented a cube that had different notes printed on each side. Campers would roll the die to select notes and correctly place the selected note on a staff. The class then sang the ditties composed. Time changes were reviewed, and Nicholas Thomas led 43 to demonstrate. The class sang 49t, and was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments II/Adults

9:00 a.m. Teacher—David Ivey. David led the class in a warm-up exercise using the major and minor scales. A review was done on notation, time signatures, and repeats. To demonstrate repeats the class sang 438 and 531. David explained the primary and secondary accents in each mode of time. The class sang 76t. David said, in reference to tempo, it is left to the reasonable discretion of the leader, but reminded the class, when leading think about the class, the occasion, the words, and the mood of the song. The class proceeded to sing songs at different speeds to demonstrate tempo. The class sang 329 and 448t. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Old Minutes—What They Tell Us & What They Don’t

10:30 a.m. Teacher—Buell Cobb. Buell recounts his research into old minutes. Buell expressed that we would like to know more about the values and ways of previous generations of singers; however, minutes were not framed for posterity, but compiled for the participants’ own use, and so our curiosity about many subjects is often left unsatisfied. Early minutes were sometimes printed in newspapers or kept in convention ledgers. In general, a spirit of tight organization prevailed. Buell found one set of minutes from 1902 that did not specify the location with enough precision, but contributors of 5, 10 and 25 cents are carefully enumerated in the publication! Leaders often led for thirty minutes, and later on fifteen or twenty minutes, but often no page numbers were recorded. One set of minutes shows no repeated songs over three days of singing. The memorial lesson (or funeral lesson) could last up to one hour. Conventions established constitutions and by-laws stating their purpose, members, boundaries and adopted books. In several cases, with an explicit statement, only dispersed harmony and not modern harmony was to be sung unless overturned by a unanimous vote. The 1930 Alabama State Convention minutes only recorded the numbers of a few songs, but made extensive comment on how the cause of Sacred Harp music could be advanced. The E.E. Forbes Piano Company was thanked for the use of the organ installed in the courthouse for the convention. Around 1930, there were easily two hundred to two hundred and fifty annual singings in Alabama. In 1888, the Clear Creek Convention in Walker County adopted the following by-laws: a leader who refuses to keep up and down time can be called down; no scriptural debates; no unsolicited song requests from the class. In 1916, the forty-ninth session of the Union Convention, in Georgia, included the reading of the constitution, and stated that the music shall be soft and mild. In 1925, at the United Convention in Atlanta, Georgia, a children’s contest was held with twenty-eight girls and fifteen boys. Judges divided the children into groups and four hundred dollars in prizes were awarded. African American singings focused more on organization and ceremony, and effectively raised considerable funds. In closing, Buell stated that a general trend is the decrease in business formalities. In the 1950s, as minutes were gathered in a common book, the format became more standardized in a form more resembling our current practice. Class dismissed.

Lesson: The Memorial Lesson

1:00 p.m. Teachers—Bridgett Hill Kennedy and Judy Caudle. Judy led 354b, and noted that the song is often used in singing schools, and contains a good message for a memorial lesson. Judy continued that the memorial lesson comes in the midst of the raucous sound of a Sacred Harp singing: it is a time of tranquility. Memorial lessons have been recorded for more than one hundred years, making it a long-standing tradition. The memorial lesson can have a different meaning to each person.

Bridgett talked about her introduction to Sacred Harp singing later in life and encountering the memorial lesson. She noted the significance of including the prayer for the families of the deceased and the sick and shut-ins. Bridgett read Matthew 6:26 and Romans 8:26, and spoke of a difficult time in her life. Bridgett and Judy solicited comments and experiences from the class about how Sacred Harp singing has affected them. A general consensus among class members was that singing was a sense of family and friendship. Bridgett commented that many instruments are not as interesting by themselves, but in an ensemble, they are beautiful. The discussion was then directed toward the words of the songs in Sacred Harp. Many singers expressed when at a singing they feel more at ease to express emotion, whether in sorrow or joy. The teachers turned the class over to the memorial committee for the memorial lesson.

The memorial lesson was conducted by Evangeline Schultz, Pattie Wareh, Amandeep Gill, Kevin Beirne, and Nicholas Thompson. Evangeline talked about the importance of building friendships. She challenged campers to reach out to those on the sick and shut-ins list with cards, phone calls, and songs. Pattie Wareh read the list of the sick and shut-ins, and led 70t. Amandeep talked about how the subject of death is rarely discussed in secular society, and was glad to be able to speak about death in Sacred Harp. She shared that at the death of a friend, a Sacred Harp song was the only way she could express herself. She noted that, when singing, we still feel the presence of those who have passed on. Kevin Beirne read the list of the deceased, and led 499 in their memory. Nicholas Thompson offered the closing prayer. Judy Caudle led 564, and the class was dismissed.

Elective: 1944 Centennial Celebration in Winston County, Alabama

1:00 p.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. Aldo led 36b as the opening song. Jim Neal offered the opening prayer. A hand-out was provided of an overall history of Winston County, Alabama. Aldo highlighted one of the prominent singing families from Winston County, the Densons, giving on overview of their involvement in Sacred Harp. A monument to the Denson family stands in front of the historic Winston County Courthouse. George Pullen Jackson attended his first Sacred Harp singing in Winston County in the 1920s and began correspondence and a relationship with the Denson family. George Pullen Jackson helped inspire a Centennial Celebration and singing to commemorate the One-Hundredth Anniversary of Sacred Harp. The opening song, 36b, was the first song led at the Centennial Singing. Aldo noted that there are five annual singings currently being held in Winston County. The class sang the following songs recorded in the minutes of the Centennial Singing: Tarik Wareh 155; Steve Brett 426b; Kevin Beirne 224; Michael Darby 142; Sallie Langendorf 274t; Nicholas Thompson 392; Jim Neal 176t; Faith Riley 145t; Aldo Ceresa 62. Jim Neal offered the closing prayer. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Leading Workshop/Adult

3:30 p.m. Teachers—Bridgett Hill Kennedy and Judy Caudle. Class members who wished to receive assistance and tips from the teachers led songs of their choice. Leaders: Holly Mixon 475; Pattie Wareh 564; Ryan Bowman 234; Nicholas Thompson 500; Laura Ann Russell 532; Fiona Nugent 349; Emily Eddins 280; Katy Brown 550; Mary Andrews 378b; Michael Darby 463; James Nugent 143; Nicole Bowman 240; Nathanael Schultz 168. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Accent

3:30 p.m. Teacher—Nathan Rees. The class reviewed each mode of time according to the Rudiments, pages 15 and 16. Nathan explained which part of each measure should get the primary and secondary accent. A variety of exercises were practiced. The class sang 347, 227, and 387 to focus particularly on placing accent on the appropriate notes. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Styles of Sacred Harp Music

4:45 p.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. Aldo led songs and made commentary on each one. He explained the particular style in which a song was written. The class sang 49t, the oldest dated song in the Sacred Harp tune book. It was rewritten with the Ninety-fifth Psalm as the lyrics. One note per syllable style became the framework for Anglican and French sacred songs. The class sang 38b, similar to American style, but it largely follows the English model and is homophonic. The class sang 503, which has characteristics of earlier songs like “Mear” and uses a wide variety of chords. The class sang 207 and 107. Daniel Reed heavily contributed to the popularization of fuging tunes. In “Russia”, the fuging parts have different melodies, but the same rhythmic structure. The class sang 36b: not all parts share poetry—a faux fugue. Comments on anthems: they are set to prose texts, they are show pieces, and fancier. Comments on odes: a musical setting of a poem of noble sentiment and dignity or style, as in “Mount Vernon” and “Claremont”. Comments on set pieces: music written to fit a certain text and that text only, as in 218 and 198. The class sang 162, folk hymn, often an adapted ballad or fiddle tune. The class sang 201, 499, 145b, and 274t as examples of camp meeting songs. Class dismissed.

Elective: Thoughts on Sacred Harp Etiquette

4:45 p.m. Teacher—Buell Cobb. Buell began by saying that people seemed to be stricter about rules and regulations back in the old days. He read a few regulations from old conventions to give a sense of the protocol and decorum that people were expected to follow. Buell talked about leading, and led 425 with an unwritten verse to demonstrate what one can get a class to sing by using gestures, body language, and singing voice. A strong leader does not have to announce their intentions beforehand, and not doing so gives freedom for a change of mind while leading. He read a passage from “Miss Gracie’s Notes” explaining why it is good etiquette to limit the number of verses. Buell shared many entertaining stories, and offered observations that were thoughtful, illustrative, and amusing. Class dismissed.

Class Singing (Youth Girls)

7:30 p.m.—Katy Brown and Mary Andrews led 81t as the opening song. Evie Eddins offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Anna Strickland, Anna Bowen, AnnaMarie Bethune, Anna Hinton, and Annaliza Cull 457; Alvaro Duarte, Owen Stoddard, Cheyenne Ivey, and Fiona Nugent 349; Allison Whitener and Grace Whitener 67; Kevin Eddins and Kevin Beirne 38b; Drew Smith and Nancy Agnew 30b; Sallie Rikansrud and Sally Langendorf 34b; Julie Rikansrud, Julia Edwards, Justin Corbett, and Jerusha Wheeler 270; Nicole Bowman, Cora Wareh, and Vivian McDonald 448b; Lilly Underwood, Will Schnorenberg, and Holly Mixon 178; Jade Thompson and Ruby Francis 45t; Karen Ivey, Eric Eddins, Eli Eddins, and Elam Eddins 36b; Faiz Wareh, Nathan Rees, and Jonathon Smith 228; Emily Eddins and Rebecca Eldridge 108b; Mike Richards, Daniel Bearden, and Tarik Wareh 458; Ryan Bowman and Ewan Eddins 40; Russell Pope, Jared Pope, and Pam Nunn 268; Jessa Cherones and Jessie Polhemus 144; Evie Eddins, Everett Daugherty, Eva Grace Horsley, and Evangeline Schultz 480; Kate Agnew, Katy Brown, Kate Fortin, and Karis Askin 212; Steve Brett and Aldo Ceresa 88b; Joanna Nicovich and Joanna Fuller 439; River Skrenes and Vale Cofer-Shabica 164; Faith Riley, Chris Coughlin, Chrissy Glenn, and Casey Glen 159; Sierra Saylors, Tullaia Powell, and Mattie Sue Prewett 564; Richard Ivey and Brian Harris 345b; Paula Oliver, Amber Saylors, and Spencer Hegwood 277; James Nugent and Philippa Stoddard 129; Gideon Lloyd and Nathanael Schultz 421; Isaac Lloyd, Donnie Simmet, Ethan Corbett, and Carter Cook 148; Caelan Treacy and Ellen Culpepper 318; Tom George, Wyatt Denney, and Jacob Acton 274t; Lainey Martin, Abbie Glen, and Mary Andrews 445; Samuel Williams, John Micah Walter, and Ezra Eddins 196; Devereux Fuller and Dorothy Brown 231. Mary Andrews and Katy Brown led 347 as the closing song. Lina Silva offered the closing prayer.

Thursday, July 9

Lesson: Rudiments III/Youth I

9:00 a.m. Teachers—Stuart Ivey, Scott DePoy, and Lauren Bock. Stuart began talking about four part harmony and where the four parts sit. Scott led 67 to practice accent. Stuart explained notations in a song, such as ties, slurs, triplets, holds (birds eye), D.C., D.S., and choice notes. Scott demonstrated a D.C. by leading 274t. Stuart then talked about repeats and double endings. The teachers answered questions from the class about the rudiments. Stuart described the habits of a good leader. He said a good leader has prepared (knows the song), observes mechanics (knows how to direct a song), and is inspired (has become comfortable and enjoys the best seat in the house). Lauren discussed sight-reading and learning new songs, using 87 as an example. Lauren stated that a leader should know the mode of time and where repeats occur. She suggested giving a preparatory hand gesture, and if the song is a fuging song, know which part comes in first. Ruby Francis and Devereux Fuller led 159. A scale game was played. Scotty, “the bad leader”, led 277. After receiving help from the class, Scotty, the bad leader, became Scotty, the good leader! Class dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments III/Adults

9:00 a.m. Teacher—Sam Sommers. Sam called the class to order leading 358. Sam informed the class that there are two keys within Sacred Harp, “Fa” and “La”. There are three clefs, three modes of common time, two modes of triple time, and two modes of compound time. He stated that rests are periods of silence within a song. A breach of silence is talking, audible foot patting, and other things of that nature. The class sang 98 to illustrate rests. Sam addressed the class about running away with a song by quoting a bumper sticker he once saw: “There they go. I must follow them, for I am their leader!” The leader is always right. Follow the leader! Micah John Walter led 198. Do not assume people will observe a hold. Watch the leader. There are two types of repeats: optional and mandatory. Scan songs for unnoticeable repeats. Bridgett Hill Kennedy led 438. In regard to accent, Sam remarked that if your hand is going down, it is worth a dollar; if your hand is coming up, it is worth fifty cents; if a note is positioned neither directly up or directly down, it’s chunk change. The two classifications of accent are primary and secondary. Tarik Wareh led 170. Slurs, ties, and joined flags were discussed. Sam led 419. The class sang tenor on 362. There was discussion about the word “beams” and correctly placing the slur. Sam closed by saying the songs we sing are older and stronger than we are; we cannot hurt them. We sing with full voices desiring earthy tones, but fog horns are really unnecessary. Dynamics are discretionary and discretion is a virtue (Rudiments, Chapter V). Sam led 92 and the class was dismissed.

Elective: Musically Conservative & Materially Modern

10:45 a.m. Teacher—Jesse Karlsberg. The 1911 James book is one of three revisions in the early twentieth century. The James book is first in direct line to the 1911 edition. James considered the new edition to be a part of a sacred heritage. It embraced conservatism in musical style and sensibility, but modernized the appearance of the book. The cover of The Original Sacred Harp implied primacy and authenticity. Standard melodies were not new-fangled, but familiar and time tested. The type-faces were scribal, but also had some new faces. There was contrast between the newness of presentation, age, and treatment of music. Reference of the vibrancy of the singing culture was called living and stirring, but powerful. The book was hardbound with good quality binding and not revised yearly, unlike other competitors. The song pages were cast as plates but covers were set type. The back cover drew a direct line to biblical history, positioning the book as deeply rooted in the Bible. The summary statement was an attempt to show modernity. The preface clearly marked out intent to stick to the older and more standard sacred tunes and against secular gospel, ragtime, and jig melodies. All of the songs from 1870 were retained and two-thirds of those removed were restored. The song layouts showed the tune composer on the top right and the poetry attribution to the left. James also introduced scriptural references for each song. There were many factual and editorial errors due to the rush to production. Jesse Karlsberg led 238 (?). Nicholas Thompson led 82t. Page 489 was removed, revised, and placed back into the 1911 edition. Page 25, led by Kevin Beirne, was one of only two gospel songs in The Original Sacred Harp. Page 528, led by Steve Brett, was newly composed for The Original Sacred Harp. James was immediately sued by Cooper for theft of alto parts, but the case was thrown out. New songs were added with a historically resonant feel. It was a new book with an old standard feel. Class dismissed.

Elective: Meter In Sacred Harp

10:45 a.m. Teacher—Sam Sommers. Sam began the class by leading 146, using first the words of “Amazing Grace”, and then the words to “Gilligan’s Island”. Sam offered the opening prayer. Sam talked about the difference in meter in time and meter in poetry. Samuel Williams led 27. Sam pointed out that 146 and 27 are both C.M., but they are in different modes of time. He stated that most Sacred Harp songs are iambic rather than trochaic. Poems are divided into feet, depending on where the accent falls. The class participated in an exercise demonstrating iambic meter and trochaic meter. Ryan Bowman led 418, which is iambic. Anything in C.M. or L.M. is usually iambic. Laura Ann Russell led 30t, which is trochaic. It starts with a down beat, which is typical, because the accent is on the down beat. Leaders: Nancy Agnew 82t; Sam Sommers 85; Sally Langendorf 106; Amandeep Gill 319. The triplets of meter are dactyl, anapest, and amphibrach. Sam led 231, which is mostly anapest with some iambic. Chris Coughlin led 342, which is amphibrach. Sam provided the class with a hand-out of Paine Denson’s Rudiments of Music in The Original Sacred Harp. Sam led 512. He read the words to 384, as an example of when musical accent is emphasized rather than poetic accent. Katy Brown led 384. Sam led 323t, and dismissed the class.

Lesson: History and Anatomy of the Fuging Tune

1:00 p.m. Teacher—Jesse Karlsberg. Fugue: a song where the class starts and ends singing poetry together with a split in between; successive imitative entrances. It is from the Latin word “fugeri” meaning flee or to fly. English churches in the 1700s wanted to replace lined out hymnody and encouraged singing schools to teach note reading. This inspired a growth in the production of more complex tunes. Jesse explained different types of fuging songs and their meaning. They are plain tune (four phrases of a hymn); plain tune with extension (repeat of final phrase); antiphonal tune (splitting the third phrase with a repeat); integrated tune (the third phrase has staggered entries and the fourth phrase together); and fuging chorus (one to four repeats or repeats on the fourth phrase). In early Sacred Harp tune books, the fuging tunes were split into “Part ll” for singing schools and societies, and “Part l” for church services. Fuging popularity in the early twentieth century remained due to Sacred Harp. The class sang the following fuging tunes: “Psalm 34 (t? b?)”, “Taunton”, “Lisbon”, 313t, “Russell”, “Fame of Jesus”, 430, 434, 548, and 472. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Learning Songs/Boys

1:00 p.m. Teachers—Drew Smith and Richard Ivey. The class warmed up by singing the scales, and then sang 213b. Drew went over the S-T-A-R-S method of sight reading for Sacred Harp. S is for signature (major/minor), T is for time signature, A is for accent, R is for rhythm, and S is for stuff (weird stuff in a song). Drew explained each letter, and said to keep them in mind when learning and leading songs. The class sang the following songs, using the S-T-A-R-S method to learn: Faiz Wareh 213t; Jacob Acton 98; Nicholas Thompson 133; James Nugent and Faiz Wareh 355; Justin Corbett 344; Elam Eddins and Zachary Silva 449; Spencer Hegwood and Drew Smith 298; David Ivey and Jared Pope 450; Ethan Corbett 359; Russell Pope and River Skrenes 240. Class dismissed.

Elective: Leading, Singing, and Remembering Jeff and Shelbie

2:10 p.m. Teachers—Rene Greene and Pam Nunn. Leaders picked a number from a hat. After successfully leading a song the camper considered challenging, a memento of Jeff’s or Shelbie’s was awarded. Leaders: Karis Askin, Amandeep Gill, Sally Langendorf, Philip Denney, Eva Grace Horsley, John Micah Walter, Bridgett Hill Kennedy, Jeannette DePoy. Between songs, many memories were shared, and stories told of Jeff and Shelbie. Class dismissed.

Elective: Team Tunesmith II—Composium

4:00 p.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. Campers had an opportunity to sing new music by the Team Tunesmith groups. The new compositions were completed during the week and were sung during the composium. Questions and comments were welcomed. Leaders: Daniel Bearden, Evie Eddins, Isaac Lloyd, Vale Cofer-Shabica, Laura Hodges, Kirk Boyer, Faiz Wareh, Owen Stoddard, Ryan Bowman, James Nugent, Steve Brett, John Micah Walter, Emily Eddins, Mike Richards, Joanna Nicovich, Aldo Ceresa, and Donnie Simmet. Class dismissed.

Elective: Ruth Brown Bus Trips

4:00 p.m. Teachers—Jesse Karlsberg and Nathan Rees. Ruth Brown’s annual bus trips from Alabama to new Sacred Harp conventions provided southern singers with an opportunity for singing, travel, and fellowship. Jesse introduced Reba Dell Windom, B.M. Smith, Rodney Ivey, and Daphene Causey, who participated in a round-table discussion of Ruth Brown’s bus trips. There were over thirty trips organized by Ruth Brown with the first one in 1976. Jesse and Nathan provided an over-head projector, and presented a slide show of many pictures taken on the trips. Jesse remarked that it was a lengthy process for Ruth Brown to make the travel arrangements and requests necessary for a good trip. She always had an itinerary with the names and addresses of all riders. Most of the time the group had the same bus driver. If the bus wasn’t full of singers, it was opened up for anyone that wanted to go. B.M. Smith recalled that the singing in Chicago was the biggest singing they attended. The singers up north were all new and not experienced. It was like having a southern singing up north. Daphene recalled games and some mischief that took place on the bus: a mock trial and funeral services for a fly. Ruth Brown was a retired school teacher, but Reba Dell Windom recalled that she was outgoing, fun, and a bit mischievous herself. Pam and Rene, who are Jeff’s and Shelbie’s daughters, recalled their parents going on many bus trips, and they were left to take care of the family business. Daphene recalled on returning from one of the trips, the bus had to pass by Jeff’s and Shelbie’s business on the highway and she saw Pam and Rene standing out front holding up a large sign that read, “Under New Management”. All agreed that the bus trips were a wonderful way to spend time together and have an impact on new singers that provided a model of traditional Sacred Harp singing. Class dismissed.

Community Singing (Young Adults)

7:00 p.m. Steve Brett and Daniel Bearden called the class to order by leading 60. Vale Cofer-Shabica offered the opening prayer.

Leaders: The Young Adults sang an original arrangement of “Call John” (from the 1911 J.S. James Original Sacred Harp). Leaders: Jim Neal, Dana Eddins, and Edith Eddins 47t; Laurie Dempsey, Michael Darby, and Laura Ann Russell 72b; Richard Ivey, Kate Agnew, and Anna Strickland 317; Gideon Lloyd, Isaac Lloyd, AnnaMarie Bethune, and Lilly Underwood 496; Sally Langendorf, Dorothy Brown, Tarik Wareh, and Cora Wareh 40; Everett Dougherty, Jacob Acton, Julia Edwards, and Nathan Rees 371; A.J. Glen, Caleb Silva, and Jerusha Wheeler 87; Jade Thompson and Karen Rollins 354b; River Skrenes, Justin Corbett, James Nugent, Will Schnorenberg, Ethan Corbett, and Russell Pope 250; David Brodeur 325; David Saylors, Amber Saylors, and Spencer Hegwood 504; Jesse C. Polhemus, Laura Hodges, and Vale Cofer-Shabica 298; Samuel Williams, Ethan Eddins, and Kevin Eddins 445; Angela Myers, Rachel Rudi, and Ewan Eddins 99; Bridgett Hill Kennedy, Jeannette DePoy, and Scott DePoy 102; Elam Eddins, Eric Eddins, Sallie Rikansrud, Mike Richards, and Pam Nunn 384; Faith Riley and Caelan Treacy 410t; Ellen Culpepper and Sam Culpepper 472; Reba Windom, Amandeep Gill, and Lela Crowder 192; Sam Sommers 422; Eugene Forbes and Idy Kiser 208; Jared Pope, Owen Stoddard, and Pattie Wareh 436; Susan Cherones and Jessa Cherones 460; Joanne Fuller and Kate Fortin 211; Nicole Bowman, Ryan Bowman, and Emily Eddins 240.

RECESS

Leaders: Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg and Lauren Bock 411; David Ivey, Karen Ivey, Grace Whitener, and Allison Whitener 138t; Paula Oliver and Donnie Simmet 101b; Anna Hinton, Cheyenne Ivey, and Virginia Eldridge 59; Nicholas Thompson and Rene Greene 522; Daphene Causey 222; Aldo Ceresa and Katy Brown 550; Drew Smith, April LaFollette, Caroline LaFollette, and Lillian Taylor 129; Kevin Beirne, Carter Cook, and Fiona Nugent 442; Judy Caudle, Mattie Sue Prewett, and Evie Eddins 282; Loyd Ivey, Scott Ivey, and Rodney Ivey 283; Daniel Williams 123b; Jonathan Smith, Rebecca Eldridge, Annaliza Cull, and Michele Cull 155; Mary Andrews and Holly Mixon 475; Philip Denney, Wyatt Denney, Eva Grace Horsley, and Karis Askin 276; Richard Mauldin 168; Faiz Wareh and Chris Coughlin 414; Sierra Saylors, Tullaia Powell, and Lainey Martin 142; Alvaro Witt Duarte, Eli Eddins, and Ezra Eddins 448t; Micah John Walter and Joanna Nicovich 313b; Ruby Francis and Devereux Fuller 186; Guy Bankes and Anna Bowen 344; Tom George and Julia Rikansrud 49b; Evangeline Schultz and Kirk Boyer 503.

Steve Brett and Daniel Bearden thanked all those who helped. Announcements were made. They led 323t as the closing song. Vale Cofer-Shabica offered the closing prayer, and the class was dismissed.

Chairmen—Steve Brett and Daniel Bearden; Arranging Committee—Kate Fortin, Evangeline Schultz, Philippa Stoddard, and Nicole Bowman; Secretary—Amandeep Gill; Chaplain—Vale Cofer-Shabica; Keyers—Micah John Walter and Mike Richards.

Friday, July 10

Following breakfast at 8:00 a.m., campers met in the Ark to take the parting hand.

The Sacred Harp Musical Heritage Association (SHMHA) is a non-profit 501 (c) (3) organization whose purpose is the perpetuation and preservation of Sacred Harp singing and its traditions. Camp Fasola is sponsored by SHMHA, and tax-deductible contributions are gratefully accepted.

Camp Director—David Ivey