Minutes of Sacred Harp Singings

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Camp FaSoLa, 2015, Adult Emphasis

Camp McDowell, Double Springs, Alabama

June 14-17, 2015

Sunday, June 14

Arrival, Registration, and Orientation

Campers arrived at 4:00 p.m. and were greeted by Jeannette DePoy and Scott DePoy at the registration tables. After receiving their t-shirts, room assignments, and schedules, campers had free time until supper at 6:00 p.m. Staff and campers met in the chapel with Camp Director David Ivey at 7:00 p.m. for an orientation meeting, and class singing followed. Camp Fasola is a non-profit endeavor of the Sacred Harp Musical Heritage Association (SHMHA). SHMHA has no paid staff. SHMHA accepts donations and is a 501 (c) (3) organization.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. Led by St. Mary’s Lodge campers. The class was called to order by David Ivey leading 388. The opening prayer was offered by Richard Schmeidler. Leaders: Judy Whiting 350; Susan Cherones 300; David Brodeur 340; Charlotte Ehrman 157; Richard Schmeidler 155; Scott DePoy and Jeannette DePoy 201; Daniel Lee 565; Rebecca Over 64; Idy Kiser 81t; Jeff Bell 504; J.R. Hardman 500; Sarah Trumbore 39t; Sonny Erwin 441; Donna Carlson 49b; Jonathon Smith 351; Laura McMurray 95; Doug Fower 448t; Ann Jett 88t; Rick Cunningham 89; Hazel Heinze 63; Steve Helwig 176b; Gillian Inksetter 330b; Ginnie Ely 228; Aldo Ceresa 83t; Ann Mashchak 551; Andy Ditzler 50t; Margaret Gillanders 212; Nathan Rees 200; Nancy Thompson 569b; Frank Griggs 29b; Lauren Bock 296; Ted Brown 111b. Bridgett Hill Kennedy conducted the devotional, and dismissed the class with prayer.

Monday, June 15

Every day there are lessons, electives, opportunities for recreation or relaxation, recess periods with snacks, and an evening class singing, along with opportunities to socialize.

Lesson: Rudiments I/Beginner

9:00 a.m.—Teacher—Lauren Bock. The class was introduced to beginning elements of Sacred Harp music. Lauren used a chart to explain the meaning of the shapes, measures, modes of time, and repeats. The class turned to page 13 of the Rudiments. The discussion was on sound, pitch, rhythm, and tempo. The class looked at 45t, and had a practice time, working on the major scale and singing triads.

Lesson: Rudiments I/Basics

9:00 a.m.—Teacher—Nathan Rees. The class sang 64 to begin. The class practiced singing scales, and the most common intervals, which are thirds, fourths and fifths. Nathan emphasized that rules are not the only key to better singing. He referred to tradition as the glue that binds the community together in song. The class sang 146 to illustrate the impact of fourths in a song, and 242 to illustrate a variety of intervals. The class returned to page 64, and practiced accent to end the lesson.

Lesson: Rudiments I/Advanced

9:00 a.m.—Teacher—Stuart Ivey. A chart was displayed showing the major and minor scales. Stuart began the lesson by leading 31t. Stuart asked who in the class thought 31t was an easy song to sing, and then had campers switch from their normal part. The class sang in unison the bass, alto, and treble parts. Stuart suggested being prepared to sing other parts in case you are needed to sing another part than you normally would at a singing. The class sang the major scale with Stuart directing to sing arpeggio, and then the class practiced singing intervals. The class sang 99, first in four parts, and then each part in unison. Stuart’s closing remarks were to work on singing the scale and intervals because ear training is very important. He said if you can sing the intervals, you can sing any song in the book.

Elective: Team Tunesmith I-Sacred Harp Composition 101 (t? b?)

10:45 a.m.—Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. Aldo stated that The Sacred Harp songbook has been revised and added to since its inception. He learned composing by having conversations with other composers and mentors. Aldo provided a handout on tune-writing that he went over with the class. Aldo taught tunesmiths to use the Sacred Harp as their guide and to start simple. He said to learn from living composers, sing your music, and work by way of trial and error. Aldo suggested writing in the order of tenor, bass, treble, and alto. A melody should be written in a way to make sure it fits comfortably in singers’ ranges. The tunesmiths were divided into groups to compose a bass part for Aldo’s tune “Camp Fasola” (Fourth). The remainder of the class was spent singing each group’s bass part with critique from Aldo Ceresa and Jesse Karlsberg.

Elective: Rudiments Applied/Sightreading

10:45 a.m.—Teacher—Stuart Ivey. The class was called to order by David Brodeur, who led 152. Stuart stated that 152 is a song rarely sung. He reviewed the printing on page 152 that included the author, composer, and meter. A handout was provided to campers explaining clefs, flats, shapes, time signatures, and repeats. The class sang 54 to illustrate repeats in a song. Stuart encouraged singers to always beat time while singing, saying “the right note at the wrong time is a wrong note”. The class looked at 240 as a song with plenty of ink. Those songs need to be observed carefully. Stuart remarked that sightreading is sometimes about damage control. He encouraged singers to pick songs appropriate for the time of day and that are within the ability of the class to sing. The class went over seven points of being able to lead well. Ginnie Ely led 225t to end the lesson.

Elective: Musically Conservative and Materially Modern

1:00 p.m.—Teacher—Jesse Karlsberg. Jesse spoke about The Original Sacred Harp, 1911 Edition by John Stephen James. By 1900, there was a need in the modern industrialized new south for a new edition of the 1884 Sacred Harp book. The aim of the new 1911 edition was to modernize and update the appearance of the book without losing the old traditions. Scripture verses were added to each song to emphasize the spirituality of the music. The font was chosen as a return to the simplicity of the old style type set. James wanted to distance the simple, strong, and spiritual music of Sacred Harp from the secular styles of operatic, ragtime, and jigs. The 1911 edition did not greatly change the original harmonies, but added alto parts. After much controversy, James’s book became more widely used than two competitors, (the Cooper and White books), and prevailed until the 1991 edition.

Elective: Songs in Major and Minor

1:00 p.m.—Teacher—Dan Brittain. Dan began by sharing his history of Sacred Harp and said that he teaches according to how he sings Sacred Harp songs. If you hear other traditions, it is not wrong, it is just other traditions. Dan remarked that the second “fa” in a minor song is usually raised by instinct and is not a uniform opinion; however, it is part of tradition. The class sang the first three measures of 209, raising the sixths in the treble part, and then again without raising the notes. Dan encouraged the class to feel the difference, and to do it by instinct. The class sang one verse of 209 and then sang 267. Dan read the words of 116, and asked the class to notice if there were repeats, high and low notes, or any raised sixths. The class sang the tenor line only and then in parts. The class sang 440, a minor tune, and 441, a major tune, and made comparisons. Dan said there are only two songs in the book that change key and reviewed one on page 355. To close the lesson, Dan led 278t.

Lesson: Leading Workshop

2:10 p.m. Teachers—Bridgett Hill Kennedy and Judy Caudle. The teachers expressed their desire to help leaders improve their leading skills. Bridgett and Judy encouraged leaders to diligently learn the tenor part of the song they choose to lead at a singing. Leading is a form of communication with voice and conservative gestures. Judy led 155, a favorite song Shelbie Sheppard used when she taught leading class. The following are those who led in class, with leading tips and techniques offered by the teachers: Dan Hayes 507; Catherine Brown 178; Steve Helwig 71; Rick Cunningham 70b; Gaea Singer 46; Doug Fower 181; Adam Brasich 203. Class dismissed.

Lesson: History and Anatomy of the Fuging Tune

2:10 p.m.—Teacher—Jesse Karlsberg. The lesson began with a question by Jesse, “What is a fuging tune?” Fuge is a Latin word used in the seventeenth century meaning to glee, hasten, pass quickly. Fuging tunes came about in the early 1700s to encourage people to sing according to the rules.

Jesse explained the variety of tunes in the Sacred Harp, and gave examples as follows: a plain tune has the setting of a hymn with four lines of notes, such as 49t and 49b; a plain tune with extension (pages 34t and 68b); an antiphonal tune (pages 63, 215, and 367); an integrated fuging tune, such as 209.

A handout was provided to campers. From the handout, Jesse led “Psalm 34 (t? b?)” and “Taunton”. Jesse stated that Daniel Reed was a prolific fuging tune writer. From the handout, the class sang “Lisbon”. In the early 1800s fuging tunes became less popular, but continued in New England. Audiences became confused with the textual overlap, meaning they could not understand what they heard. Fuging tunes were criticized for being too boisterous and not solemn enough. Oliver Holden made an effort to circumvent this notion in his composition “Concord”. Ginnie Ely led 313t.

By the 1850s, Southern composers were experimenting with fuging tunes with a common entrance pattern or beginning with a tonic chord. Paine Denson and Marcus Cagle became very conventional fuging tune writers. The class had a discussion with Dan Brittain about his word painting and wide ranging alto in the tune “Akin”. Dan led 472, and the class was dismissed.

Lesson: Old Minutes—What They Tell Us and What They Don’t

3:30 p.m.—Teacher—Buell Cobb.

Buell provided campers with a handout compiled of minutes and pictures taken from Conventions held as early as August 4, 1882 (sixth annual session of the Warrior River Musical Convention in Etowah County, Alabama), July 4, 1902 (Jaybird Sacred Harp Singing Convention at New Home Church), and more from the 1920s through the 1970s. Buell asked the question, “Why?” and answered himself with, “Well, because we want to know what it was like 100 to 150 years ago!” Many minutes do not mention song titles, numbers, or names of leaders, but Buell found minutes from 1902 that do mention the names of those who made a contribution and the amount each gave (from 5 to 50 (t? b?) cents). Minutes of the 38th annual session of the Clear Creek Sacred Harp Singing Convention in 1925 adopted articles to the Constitution, such as “The Chairman has the right to call any leader down who refuses to keep straight up and down time” and “This convention shall not be opened with an introductory sermon”. In a Friday afternoon session, recorded in the 1930 minutes of the 21st annual session of the Alabama State Convention held at the Courthouse in Birmingham, Alabama, C.J. Griggs of Atlanta, Georgia, obtained the floor and presented an article, “Music and Its Progress”, for the consideration of the Convention to be spread upon the minutes and adopted. The following is an excerpt from the adopted article contained in the minutes: “As we have chosen for our part the great cause and advancement of Sacred Harp Music, it is highly important that we should combine our efforts to promote its progress by teaching schools, organizing conventions, getting books, offering personal compositions and suggestions on the subject, keeping in touch with each other by correspondence, helping to sing in church, teaching younger people to sing all parts of a song and, in fact, making our music so attractive that people cannot stay away from it. The efforts of our ancestors were intended for us to work on, what they did was behind us, what we have to do is ahead. Let us lay aside frictions and go hand in hand in one of the greatest causes in the world and never stop until every rippling stream will be dotted with houses filled with music and happy people”. Buell stated that some minutes make mention of the 1869 and 1911 James books being the only books allowed, and lastly, Buell found several instances of a piano or organ being used during the singings of the 1920s and ‘30s. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Accent

3:30 p.m.—Teacher—Nathan Rees. Nathan defined accent as emphasis put on certain notes, but stated UN-accenting is equally important. Accent is what gives Sacred Harp its distinctive sound, and it will keep the tradition alive! Accent also keeps the class together, and it greatly changes the sound of the song. Nathan encouraged the class to invest the time to learn accent, so it will become natural. As an example, Nathan read the words to 45t in two different ways showing how accent matters. When the class gels, it is likely and largely due to accent.

Nathan explained common time (2/2, 2/4, and 4/4), triple time (3/2 and 3/4), and compound time (6/4 and 6/8). In each mode of time, he explained where primary accent is placed, where secondary accent occurs, and also, where no accent is used. The class sang 57, heavily accented to feel the swing, and found it fun! Nathan commented that the unaccented notes make the song too. The class sang 43, using accent with multiple modes of time.

Elective: The Songs of P. Dan Brittain

4:45 p.m.—Teacher—Dan Brittain. The class sang the following songs composed and led by Dan Brittain: “Beard” (the first Sacred Harp singer he met), “Iowa” (for the first Iowa Convention), “Cowling” (for choirmaster Doug Cowling), “Garden State” (for the second Garden State Convention), “Redding” (example of raised 6th), “Kittery” (combining two Missouri tunes), “Maquoketa” (site of first Iowa Convention), “Self-Examination” (with John Bayer), “Polnick” (parish church outside of Mount Vernon), “Ruth” (for Ruth Denson Edwards), “Steel” (for Warren Steel), “Hauff” (for Judy and Melanie Hauff), “Chmielno” (for first Camp Fasola in Chmielno, Poland, 2012), “Dean Street” (for Cork singers), “Hamrick” (re-written as fugue in 2015, sang for first time today).

Elective: Keying Music

4:45 p.m.—Teacher—David Ivey. David began by stating that listening is the key to keying songs, and that there is a need to key songs. He suggested that those who wish to learn how to key should listen to how someone else keys a song and note how it sounds at that pitch. David referred the class to page 14 of the Rudiments that discusses keying. The class turned to 37b and David gave this song as an example to use to hear a song in their head. Beginners spent the remainder of the class keying the following songs: 399b, 277, 331, 477, 68t, and 312t. A final reminder to campers was to be quiet while the keyer is trying to find a pitch.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. Led by Holy Comforter Lodge and Stough Lodge campers. The class was called to order by Sonny Erwin and Peter Trumbore leading 148. Adam Brasich offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Adam Brasich 58; Karen Ivey 129; Robert Dickey and Aldo Ceresa 116; Bridgett Hill Kennedy 189; Chris Brown 120; Gaea Singer 457; Linda Sides 319; Dan McCarter 3767; Helen Brown 436; Bruce Voyles 163b; Catherine Brown 287; Bill Hayes 312b; Judy Caudle 91; Jesse P. Karlsberg 291; Frances Miller 168; Dan Brittain 121; Karen Freund 456; Rosalind Oldham 127; Vicki Elliott 37b; Asa Horvitz 448b; Buell Cobb 308; Richard Schmeidler 543; J.R. Hardman 282; Ginnie Ely 269; Margaret Gillanders 384. The devotional was conducted by Gaea Singer, reading from Romans 121. The closing prayer was offered by Adam Brasich.

The class remained in Pradat Hall to enjoy a presentation by Buell Cobb, reading excerpts from his book Like Cords Around My Heart. An ice cream social followed the reading, and campers enjoyed free time until lights out.

Tuesday, June 16

Lesson: Rudiments II/Beginner

9:00 a.m.—Teacher—Lauren Bock. Lauren referred the class to Chapter III, page 17 of the Rudiments, Melodics, which concerns pitch and patterns of successive pitches. Lauren described an octave as stair steps. On page 14 of the Rudiments in Chapter II, Rhythmics, the arrangements of notes and rests in time are reviewed. Lauren explained that when patterns of successive pitches and arrangements of notes in time are put together, you have a song! On page 15 of the Rudiments, the class looked at the different notes, rests, and their duration. Rests are periods of silence. A diagram of rests was reviewed on page 15 of the Rudiments. The class looked at 503, taking note of the rest hanging below the line and 45t with the rest above the line and the time it receives. On page 170, the class took note of the quarter rest and the time it gets. Page 15 in the Rudiments showed examples of eighth and sixteenth rests and the equivalent of time each represent. Lauren explained the modes of time described on page 15 of the Rudiments. The remainder of the lesson was used going over accent, reviewing songs with ties, slurs, special characters, fermatas, D.C., and first and second endings. The class sang 274t, and was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments II/Basics

9:00 a.m.—Teacher—Nathan Rees. Campers were welcomed, and began the lesson practicing the major scale. The class was divided into two groups to participate in an exercise of intervals composed by Nathan. Nathan discussed tempo in each mode of time. Nathan reviewed accent and beating time according to page 16 of the Rudiments. The class looked at songs that have time changes, as in 227 and 387. The class sang 387 tenor line only and in parts. The remainder of the lesson was spent singing more intervals.

Lesson: Rudiments II/Advanced

9:00 a.m. Teacher—Dan Brittain. Dan talked about Rhythmics and patterns. He referred to the pattern in 302. He remarked that there has been a tendency in the past five years to moderate the tempo so people from different communities can sing together. Dan suggested that everyone should beat time all of the time. In the Sacred Harp, we beat down and up in two beats instead of four. Dan related that beating in four tends to even out the accent and pulse that is characteristic of our music. The class reviewed songs in common time: 70 (t? b?) in 2/2, 416 in 4/4 and 170 in 2/4. The class reviewed songs in triple time, using a “down, down, up” motion: 163b in 3/2 and 30b in 3/4. Songs in 3/2 are usually slower than 3/4. The class reviewed songs in compound time: 98 in 6/4 and 57 in 6/8. Dan commented on 481. His original draft of the song had a time change. Class was dismissed.

Elective: Death and Dying in The Sacred Harp

10:30 a.m. Teacher—Jeannette DePoy. Jeannette said she loves the poetry in songs about death and dying and if we go through life knowing we will die, it will change how we live our lives. Jeannette named some songs that have the word death, die, or dying in them (78, 554 (?), 57 and 26). The songs were discussed, and class members shared what the words meant to them. Jeannette led 460, 235, 48t, 494 and 111b. Leaders: Scott DePoy 65; Rebecca Over 390; Bill Hayes 209; Charlotte Ehrman 549; Bridgett Hill Kennedy 339; Dan McCarter 122; Douglas Fower 410t; Gaea Singer 38b; Donna Carlson 37b; Rosalind Oldham 146.

Elective: Composing Tenor Lines

10:30 a.m. Teacher—Dan Brittain. Dan provided a hand-out with points on how to write a tenor line in Sacred Harp. The points suggest starting with a plain tune style or one similar to 177 with parts entering alone. Use 2/4 or 4/4 time if you want a faster tune or 2/2 for a slower tune. In the rhythmic patterns, keep it simple to start and use mostly half notes for a slow tune, and for faster tunes use some variety, but not too complex. The rhythms chosen should be consistent. For the first note, start on “Sol” or “Fa”. You can be more adventurous later! The last note should end on “fa”. Use mostly step motion, some skips are allowed (but every note should not be a skip). The last point Dan made was to try to match your tenor to the text, sometimes the words suggest motions. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Leading Workshop

3:30 p.m. Teachers—Bridgett Hill Kennedy and Judy Caudle. Bridgett Hill Kennedy opened the class by leading 82t. Leaders: Nancy Thompson 460; Susan Cherones 65; Laura McMurray 455; Andy Ditzler 387; Gedney Barclay 474; Frank Griggs 260; Pat Ryan 63; Charlotte Ehrman 196; Randy Neely 479; Asa Horvitz 542; Susan Cherones 39b; Catherine Brown 569b; Gypsy Youngraven 49t; Daniel Lee 89; Frances Miller 112. Class dismissed.

Lesson: I Will Never Unloose My Hold

3:30 p.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. Aldo opened the class leading 36t. Aldo stated that holds or fermatas can add to a song, but all holds are not alike and mastering them can be difficult, even for seasoned singers. Holds rarely appear in early American tune books and are not mentioned in most eighteenth and early nineteenth century rudiments. The first dated tune found with a hold is in 1771. Well-crowned figures like Daniel Reed (Columbian Harmony), John McCurry (Social Harp, 1855), B.F. White and C.J. King (Sacred Harp, 1844) all give different definitions of a hold. Aldo remarked that even though they are not agreed on definitions of a hold, there are customs. “A Practical Guide to Fermatas in The Sacred Harp” was provided to the class, including examples of particular holds, such as half-measure downbeat holds, half measure upbeat holds, holds on the third beat in common time, full measure holds, off-beat, and unusual holds. Class members practiced and discussed the following songs with holds: 569b, 493, 163t, 48b. Aldo’s final advice was to watch a good leader you admire and see how they do things. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Arranging Committee

3:30 p.m. Teachers—Jesse Karlsberg and Lauren Bock. Jesse and Lauren offered tips and suggestions for serving on the Arranging Committee. The Arranging Committee is very important to a singing. Jesse stated that arranging can make or break a singing. Suggestions were to make sure, when possible, your next leader is in the class before calling them to lead. Call your local singers at the beginning of the day and at the beginning of each session to warm up the class. Spread leaders out by location or people who you know that came together or who are family members. If you are aware of new or inexperienced leaders who may not know many songs yet, try to call them early in the day so they will not spend the day anxious about having their song being called, but do try to inspire them. The hour after lunch is a high contour time, when leaders should be called that can help maintain the energy in the afternoon session. Lauren and Jesse answered any questions and the class was dismissed.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. Led by Advent Lodge Campers. The following officers served: Chairwoman—Ginnie Ely; Secretary—William Hayes; Arranging Committee—J.R. Hardman and Doug Fower. The class was called to order by Ginnie Ely leading 34b. The opening prayer was offered by Shari Harrison. Leaders: Doug Fower 40; Sarah Trumbore 168; Pat Ryan 63; Idy Kiser 122; Ann Jett 47t; Nathan Rees 417; Dan Comstock 186; Rebecca Over 411; Aldo Ceresa 272; Donna Carlson 47b; Rick Cunningham 101t; Laura McMurray 455; Emma Calvert 76b; David Ivey 378b; Gillian Inksetter 548; Hazel Heinze 84; Frank Griggs 506; David Brodeur 419; Judy Whiting and Shari Harrison 354t; Jeannette DePoy 128; Daniel Lee 497; Steve Helwig 422; Lucy Heidorn 436; Ted Brown 99; Andy Ditzler 313t; Ann Mashchak 373; Susan Cherones 65; Jeff Bell 100; Charlotte Ehrman 113; Nancy Thompson 460; Jonathon Smith 449; Lauren Bock 187; Ginnie Ely 48t.

The evening devotion was delivered by Rosalind Oldham. The theme was that you never know what God has planned for you. She related a very touching story of her own life and its trials and tribulations, but how God must have had a plan for her, and it all worked out for the best.

Sonny Erwin recognized David and Karen Ivey for all the work that they put forth to make Camp FaSoLa a success. This brought a standing ovation. Jeff and Shelbie Shepherd were remembered for their many contributions to Camp FaSoLa and the Sacred Harp tradition.

Lucy Marie (Ryan) Heidorn addressed the group, giving an account of her Creel family history and their involvement in Sacred Harp. She has an amazing memory of her extended family history.

Wednesday, June 17

Lesson: Rudiments III/Beginner

9:00 a.m. Teacher—Lauren Bock. Lauren reminded the class of some particulars of Sacred Harp singing and leading. She suggested that, when leading, to sing the tenor line. It also helps with understanding the music. When singing a three-part song, the alto will normally sing the bass line, but that is optional. The tenor and treble lines often have similar movement in a song; when in doubt, sing the tenor. Watching the leader is the singer’s responsibility. The class reviewed and sang the minor scale. The minor scale begins with “la”; the major scale begins with “fa”. The modes of time were reviewed. The class sang 274t, 300, 313b, and 146, and was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments III/Basics

9:00 a.m. Teacher—Nathan Rees. Nathan began the class with an exercise in major intervals. Seven class members were each given a shape to be placed on a staff that was displayed on a board. Each of the seven campers placed their shape on the staff in a location of their choosing, with intervals in mind, and then the class had to sing the shapes that were placed on the staff. Nathan explained intervals and ways to find them. The class reviewed and practiced the minor scale and intervals. The class sang 346 and reviewed 6/4 time and accent. The class sang 109 and 260. Nathan remarked that starting is the hardest part of leading; make eye contact and do not be intimidated. The class sang 82t. Nathan explained that if you want to fix or change the tempo while you are leading, take a step forward to gain attention from the front row. The dedication page was read from the front of the songbook. Margaret Gillanders offered the closing prayer.

Lesson: Rudiments III/Advanced

9:00 a.m. Teacher—David Ivey. David led 169, and said that it is the least used song in the book. The reason for 169 and other songs not being sung may be due to unfamiliarity rather than complexity of the song. David reviewed the Rudiments regarding measures, notations, and dots. The class practiced the major scale. David advised to think on top of the note as you sing to avoid going flat. There was a short discussion of the raised sixth. David talked about the benefits of learning other parts. On page 20; Chapter V, of the Rudiments, the class went over points of dynamics, including crescendos and accent. The class sang the following songs, keeping in mind the dynamics: 417, 177, 143, 235, 39b, 354b, 29t, 131b, and 346. Class dismissed.

Elective: Thoughts on Sacred Harp Etiquette

10:45 a.m. Teacher—Buell Cobb. Buell began by quoting Dewey Williams, “Anybody who don’t know more than’s in the Rudiments ain’t learn’t but mighty little.” Buell stated that over time some things have changed. Today is more informal in dress and behavior. In the old days, only the best would lead. Later on and today more people lead. Buell gave some examples from older Constitutions: (1923) It said “We perpetuate and defend tradition”; A Cooper Book (1858) said “The leader shall not occupy too much time”. Violators were deprived for twelve months and some were expelled from conventions. Rules and regulations were enforced. No spitting allowed (1867). Buell said the bedrock principles were to show no partiality or sympathy for any religion or politics, and avoid arguments or sermons. Buell remarked that we are focused on celebrating our musical traditions in Sacred Harp. We are tolerant about everything except the music. It is inappropriate to have petition signings or to ask about beliefs, and no politics. The memorial lesson is to honor singers and lovers of Sacred Harp music who have passed on and those who are sick and shut-in. Be careful not to go outside past precedents. Choral arrangements of Sacred Harp tunes are done by some composers out there. We don’t like those arrangements! Let’s keep it traditional. Leading has two extremes—the master and the total novice; both are easy on the front bench and they lead or follow! To be in-between is most difficult. Don’t sit in the front row if you are not qualified. As a default procedure, continue beating time and the singers will continue. Learn how to stop. A pause between verses is helpful. New leaders are encouraged to tell ahead if they will repeat. Buell led 425, saying “the hand is like a magic wand” and to lean into the group to communicate. It is a breach of etiquette to change the key without asking. It is common sense when a song has many verses to indicate which ones you want to sing. Sometimes, leading too many verses violates responsibility to the group. Sacred Harp is democratic! Sense what the group wants. Watch good leaders. Do not keep your eyes on your book; watch the leader! The Arranging Committee should keep good theater in mind. Vary songs with different tempos and use locals to get the singing going. Buell told a story about a Georgia family and the point of the story was... there are few absolutes in Sacred Harp. Use common sense! Class dismissed.

Elective: And Then I’ll Be At Rest

10:45 a.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. The class began with Aldo leading 77b. A hand-out was provided with information on the art of silence in Sacred Harp singing. Aldo explained that rests are there for a reason. They are as important as learning time, tune, and accent. Paine Denson, at the 1954 Chattahoochee Convention, said, “It’s just as important to rest when the time comes as it is to sing when the time comes.” The time remaining was spent singing songs with rests in them. Leaders: Jeannette DePoy 149; Sonny Erwin 325; Dan Brittain 38b; Rosalind Oldham 34b; Lauren Bock 210; Aldo Ceresa 232, 522, 365; Jesse Karlsberg 234, 292.

Elective: Singing Favorites with Elder Hopper

1:00 p.m. Teacher-Elder J.L. Hopper. Elder Hopper stated that the writer of the text has a message to convey and does so with words. The music is written to emphasize the words so that we might understand what the writer meant to convey. Elder Hopper read the text of “Enfield”, written by Elizabeth Rowe, and led “Enfield”. Elder Hopper remarked that the words of “Chester” are not the original words written by William Billings. The original text was about securing freedom from the English. He led 291, mentioning that the words reflected the scripture Psalm 18:10 telling us what the Lord has done. He led 311 that tells us what we should do—sing Hallelujah. The class sang 54 and 49t. Elder Hopper told a story of when he was four years old his grandfather told him that if he learned and led 76t (at the singing at Gum Pond in 1936), he would give him a nickel. He said that he took his book and got on the bed in his room, and learned the notes since he could not read yet. He memorized the words with help from his mother. He sang and led the song at the singing, and earned his nickel! The class sang 76t, 306, and 301 to conclude.

Elective: Styles of Sacred Harp Music

1:00 p.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. Aldo led 28t as an example of a plain tune. Aldo stated that songs have been categorized by style since the 1700s. The different categories or styles are Plain, Psalm, Fuguing, Camp Meeting, and Folk. A plain song is easy and polyphonic. Psalm tunes have a genteel character and are uncharacteristic of Sacred Harp. Fuguing songs are rhythmic imitation in parts. Camp Meeting songs have a lot of note repetition, are catchy and high energy. Folk tunes are pentatonic and snappy. He remarked that some songs are a combination of styles. Aldo led the class in the following songs as examples of the various styles: 49t, 565, 38b, 515, 452, 145b, 162, 159, 48b, 102, 267, and 274t. Class dismissed.

Lesson: The Memorial Lesson

2:10 p.m. Teachers—Judy Caudle and Bridgett Hill Kennedy. Judy Caudle led 354b, and explained that in Sacred Harp tradition there are many types of lessons. Singing lessons are often dedicated to people who are unable to attend or who may have a loved one who passed away. The memorial lesson is a time for quiet reflection and memories. It is a special lesson often tailored differently and can mean different things to different people. Bridgett spoke about the difference in those who grew up singing Sacred Harp and those who were adopted into it. Bridgett remarked that we all can recall a time when the memorial lesson began to mean something to us. Bridgett and Judy posed a question of how has Sacred Harp affected our thoughts about death. A time of interaction began with class members who shared their thoughts. Bridgett read the second verse of 330b. A part of the memorial lesson is remembering the sick and shut-ins. Some class members spoke about how much it meant to them to be reached out to by singers and contacted during their time of illness. The class concluded and entered into a memorial lesson.

The memorial lesson was conducted by Linda Sides and Doug Fower. Linda Sides read the following list of names of the sick and shut-ins: Bob DePoy, John Hopkinson, Ann Lloyd-Davis, Steve Harrison, Dave Kidman, Connor McDougall, Curtis Owen, Edith Owen, Norma Waterson, Cath Tyler, Kaneaster Hodges, Jr., Dan Adams, Sister Pippa, Elsie Moon, S.T. Reed, Wayne Reed, Ruth Steggles, Kermit Adams, Velton Chafin, Johnie Chafin, Ottis Sides, Toney Smith, Lavoy Smith, Melanie Hauff, B.M. Smith, Eugene Forbes, Lindley Hodges, and Litefoot. Doug Fower said those who have passed leave a hole in our lives, and that we miss them and remember them. He read the following list of names of the deceased: Evelyn Harris, Stanly Edwards, Sammie Oliver, Dawson Adams, Charles Kitchens, Johnny Humber, Stella Pratt—Alabama; Tom Wilson—Connecticut; Jo Howarth Noonan, Raymond Hamrick, Joyce Harrison, C.W. Garner—Georgia; Kate Davis—Ireland; Richard Forsyth—Massachusetts; Patricia Rufo—New York; Danny Arms—North Carolina. Linda Sides read the words of 565, and offered the prayer to close the memorial service.

Lesson: Learning Songs

3:15 p.m. Teacher—Jonathon Smith. Jonathon gave class members a hand-out titled “Curious Singer’s Guide to Learning Songs from the Sacred Harp”. Jonathon said that two things are needed when learning Sacred Harp songs—patience and time! Other pointers Jonathon gave the class were to practice, go to monthly singings, learn the tenor part, and practice scales and intervals. An interval exercise was provided on the hand-out. He suggested to practice fast parts slowly. The class looked at 217, and practiced it slowly. Jonathon gave several sources to find and listen to recordings, one being YouTube. A class member led 74t. Jonathon answered questions in regard to difficulties in songs. On fuging tunes, you do not have to bring in every part. Jonathon led 26, since it is a song many had not sung. The class sang 34b, and class was dismissed.

Lesson: Leading, Singing, and Remembering Jeff and Shelbie

3:15 p.m. Teachers-Rene Greene and Pam Nunn. Rene and Pam led 217. After remembering the contributions made by Jeff and Shelbie Sheppard to Camp Fasola, they chose students to lead songs that they would consider challenging. As campers led, Pam and Rene offered constructive criticism, and invited participants to share recollections about Jeff and Shelbie. Leaders were rewarded with special mementos that had belonged to Jeff and Shelbie, including a Lloyd’s Hymnal, pieces of jewelry and apparel, and commemorative items from singings to which the Sheppards had traveled.

Leaders: Helen Brown 518; Lauren Bock 543; Charlotte Ehrman 196; Andy Ditzler 189; Asa Horvitz 542; Jeff Bell 560; Karen Freund 376; Chris Brown 468; David Brodeur 195; Sonny Erwin 534.

Elective: Team Tunesmith II—Composium

4:25 p.m. Teacher—Aldo Ceresa. The Composium began with Aldo leading “Bear Creek”. Tunesmiths completed six exercises. Composers led their new compositions, and Aldo gave helpful and insightful comments. The class sang songs by Jesse Karlsberg and Linda Sides that were written from last year’s Team Tunesmith Composium. Class was dismissed.

Elective: The Alabama McGraws

4:25 p.m. Teacher—Rebecca Over. Special guests present in the class were Eugenia Ridinger (granddaughter of Lee McGraw), Coy Middlebrooks (grandson of Lee McGraw), and Lisa McGraw (daughter of Albert Jackson McGraw). Rebecca thanked them for coming to the class. Rebecca spent time traveling in Alabama and Georgia during 2011-2015, interviewing family members and doing research on the McGraw family and their contribution to Sacred Harp. A hand-out was distributed entitled “The Alabama McGraws, Singers and Composers of Lauderdale County”. The compilation of Rebecca’s research included the McGraw family tree (including selected Bishops, Entrekins, and Wallaces) and a family tree of the Nix family showing connections with the Lee McGraw, Hendrix, Entrekin, and Cagle families. Rebecca recounted the civil war history of the McGraws. Roland McGraw and Augusta (Gussie) Entrekin-McGraw are known to be the first generation of the McGraw family to be Sacred Harp singers. By the end of 1901, there were eleven surviving children, three of whom became well known composers. In 1902; Roland and Augusta McGraw and their eleven children began traveling by wagon to Alabama in search of a better land. Roland died in 1910, but Augusta spent the rest of her life as a dedicated Sacred Harp singer. She lived to see her sons and grandson compose songs featured in the 1936 edition. Warren Steel led “Entrekin”. Lee Andrew McGraw, Roland and Augusta’s second child, grew up with Sacred Harp singing. Lee built the house that would become the McGraw family home. Lee was a member of the Music Committee for the 1936 edition. During the year the book was prepared, Lee was farming, being a director of the bank, and serving as deacon and treasurer of Bethel Baptist Church. Lee had two songs in the 1936 edition, “Entrekin” and “Odem”, that are still in the book today. Lee’s song “Liberty Grove” was in the 1960 edition. The class sang “Liberty Grove” led by Steve Helwig. Eugenia Ridinger shared a story of Leon McGraw, who at the age of 19 composed “Odem” (first). The class sang 295 led by Helen Brown. Lee’s first wife, Lou, died in 1955. Lee then married Ida Bertha Nix, a half-sister of Lou’s father. Rebecca remarked that Ida stood out in her research as one who continued to be an active singer and leader after Lee’s death, and one who made a contribution to the 1960 edition. Class was dismissed.

Community Singing

7:00 p.m. Led by Mullen and Miss Mary’s Lodges campers. Frances Miller called the class to order by leading 49t. Dan Comstock offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Rick Cunningham and Gypsy Youngraven 159; Jesse Karlsberg and Lauren Bock 270; Bridgett Hill Kennedy, Judy Caudle, Susan Cherones, and David Ivey 201; Peter Trumbore 105; Bruce Voyles 344; Catherine Brown 38b; Sue Peters 34b; Gillian Inksetter and Annette Kastner 198; David Brodeur 280; Warren Steel and Sarah Trumbore 53; Aldo Ceresa and Frank Griggs 67; Daniel Lee 225t; Linda Sides 215; Idy Kiser and Eugene Forbes 212; Donna Carlson 49b; Charlotte Ehrman 318; Richard Schmeidler 475; Karen Freund and Karen Ivey 77t; Rebecca Over and Eugenia Ridinger 395; Vicki Elliott 37b; Nathan Rees and Jonathon Smith 371; Asa Horvitz 542; Ann Jett and J.R. Hardman 512; Andy Ditzler 35; Sonny Erwin and Angela Myers 30b; Gedney Barclay 474; Hazel Heinze and Nancy Thompson 178; Aldo Ceresa 128; Adam Brasich and Dan McCarter 133; Chris Brown and Judy Whiting 521; Elene Stovall and Sarah Baugh 217; Jeff Bell 30t; Dan Comstock and Ann Mashchak 370; Mark Davis 234; Ginnie Ely and Gaea Singer 148; Pam Nunn 556; Steve Helwig and Bill Hayes 288; Steve Adams 99; Shari Harrison and Lauren Bock 480; Richard Mauldin 168; Doug Fower 300; Laura McMurray and Pat Ryan 39t. Frances Miller led 347 as the closing song, and then offered the closing prayer.

Thursday, June 18

Following breakfast at 7:00 a.m., camp was dismissed.

Camp Director—David Ivey