Minutes of Sacred Harp Singings

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Camp Fasola 2013, Adult Emphasis

Camp McDowell, Double Springs, Alabama

June 9-13, 2013

Sunday, June 9

Arrival, Check-in, and Orientation

Campers arrived at 4:00 p.m. to check-in, receive their t-shirts, room assignments, schedules, and settle in. After supper at Stough Dining Hall, staff and campers met in the chapel for an orientation meeting with Camp Director David Ivey. He told campers that Camp Fasola began in 2003 with a single session at Camp Lee near Anniston, Alabama. Its success led to the scheduling of two sessions annually, one emphasizing youth and the other focusing on adults. Camp Fasola is a non-profit endeavor of the Sacred Harp Musical Heritage Association (Shmha). Shmha has no paid staff. Shmha accepts donations and is a 501 (c) (3) organization.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. led by Advent Lodge campers. The class was called to order by Karen Willard leading 46. Sonny Erwin offered the opening prayer. Leaders: David Brodeur 182; Lindy Groening 129; Mary Helen Dupree 164; Joe Vickers 497; Nell Whitman 42; Nathan Rees 435; Gillian Inksetter 330b; Barb Patterson 448b; Andrew Mashchak 475; Sonny Erwin 441; Ginnie Ely 228; Helen Brown 556; Ryan Bowman 47b; Martha Rogers 105; David Smead 120; Ted Brown 418; Judy Caudle 76t; Dan Brittain 77t; Bridgett Kennedy 276; Jesse P. Karlsberg 546; Rachel Hall 542; David Ivey 195; Jeannette DePoy 155; Lauren Bock 187; Margaret Gillanders 500; Susan Cherones 300; Mark Claque 186; Anne Heider 189; Douglas Fower 112; JoDell Albi 110; Len VanderJagt 277.

Gillian Inksetter led the devotional, speaking about early singing experiences and about how the Holy Spirit is here from the beginning. She led 492, and dismissed the class with prayer.

Monday, June 10

Every day there are lessons, electives, opportunities for recreation or relaxation, recess periods with snacks, and an evening class singing, along with opportunities to socialize.


7:00 a.m. Campers could choose to hike, swim, or sing on the Pradat porch. Breakfast followed at8:00 a.m.

Lesson: Rudiments I Basics

9:00 a.m. Teacher-David Ivey David brought the class to order. He said that music involves pitch or tone, time or length, accent or emphasis, and volume. David and the class discussed how to choose a part to sing. Some suggestions were comfort, necessity, interest, range, stamina, and learning the melody. David suggested learning a different part, if one’s voice will accommodate it. It is good exercise. The tonic is the first note in the scale, a Fa in major and a La in minor tunes. David referred to the Rudiments, pg. 13, explaining sections 7 and 8. He then referred to pg. 14, discussing measures, bars, and repeat marks. He continued on pg. 15, and the class studied notes, rests, and modes of time. David and the class practiced singing scales and intervals in both major and minor keys.

Lesson: Rudiments I Advanced

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain Dan brought the class to order by leading 123t. Dan said that the traditional rudiments assigned specific speeds to each mode of time, along with specific methods of beating time. Traditionally, 2/2, 4/4, 2/4, 6/4, and 6/8 were done with two beats per measure—down and up. Triple time is 3 beats—down, down, and up. The new set of rudiments recognized that in some areas, 4/4 may also be done with 4 beats per measure. Dan said his personal opinion is that this reflects regional traditions, and should not be taken as license to do any 4/4 song with 4 beats. Respect the tradition where you are. Time signatures denote modes of time and the rudiments explain time signatures as follows: the bottom number tells which note to count (by length), and the top number tells how many. His example was in 2/4 time, there are 2 quarter notes (or equivalent, including rests) per measure. If one becomes familiar with the rhythmic patterns used in each mode, the process of counting becomes much easier. Songs used during this class were 39t, 49t, 147t, 146, 32t, 85, 57, 64, and 34t.

Elective: Learning Songs

10:45 a.m. Teacher-Judy Caudle Judy introduced herself as a fourth generation Sacred Harp singer. She said that learning songs takes lots of practice and repetition. She led 46. Other campers led songs of their choice as follows: Lisa Bennett 347; JoDell Albi 169; Daniel Lee 475; Charlotte Ehrman 196; Jeff Begley 550; Robert Dupree 84; Susan Cherones 173.

Elective: Sacred Harp Composition 101 (t? b?)

10:45 a.m. Teacher-Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg Jesse brought the class to order and described the composition exercise called “Team Tunesmith”. Members of the class are given a tune with only the tenor part. Each participant must write the harmony parts. Jesse described his personal history of studying composition, seeking feedback from writers Raymond Hamrick, Neely Bruce, and Dan Brittain, and also seeking collaboration with his peers in learning composition in the Sacred Harp style. Jesse tackled the complex question of what makes or defines Sacred Harp, citing very complex and varied social/historical contexts from which styles within Sacred Harp have arisen. Ultimately, a Sacred Harp song is defined by its feel. Jesse suggests that we think of composition not in terms of breaking rules, but as having its own conventions. Jesse says that studying composition can only take one so far. It’s also necessary to sing with others and to sing other parts to get some sense of what each part might do uniquely. Doing so helps give each part character, and will also familiarize one with the range of each voice. Most composers write tenor, bass, treble, and then alto (in that order). The class began work on the exercise given in the beginning by writing a bass part to the melody. Jesse and Clint Davis sang through all the examples before ending the class.

Elective: Rees (e)‘s Pieces

1:00 p.m. Teacher-Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg Jesse brought the class to order. Jesse led 285b (one of the least popular songs of the Rees brothers), Cecelia Kramer led 274t (one of the most popular), and Buell Cobb led 69b (another less popular tune). Jesse said this class is about the songs and lives of the Rees (e) brothers. He talked about the spelling of the brothers’ name, sometimes found with an “e” on the end and sometimes found without the “e”. Both H.S. and J.P. were prolific song writers, and another brother, Thomas Clopton Rees (T. C.), also composed music.

J.P. Rees was married, and he and his wife had ten children. He was a farmer, and served as tax collector. He was an active figure in the public affairs of his community. He contributed articles to the Barnesville Gazette that were usually of a humorous nature. He attended singing schools taught by S.R. Pennick. He had songs published in 1855 in “The Organ” and contributed songs for the 1859 revision of the Sacred Harp. He served as President of the Chattahoochee Convention for many years. Leaders: Jeff Begley 417; Helen Brown 39t; Lauren Bock 567; JoDell Albi 385t; Anne Heider 434.

H.S. Rees was married and had one child. After the death of his first wife, he married again, and he and his wife had seven children. He served in the Civil War as a medical assistant, and helped black Americans establish local churches. He contributed two songs to the 2nd edition of the Sacred Harp, and also contributed songs to the 1859 and 1870 revisions. He was a long time active composer, and died at the age of 93. Leaders: Bridgett Kennedy 421; Judy Caudle 428; Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg “Land of Canaan”; Warren Steel “Humble Penitent”; Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg “Troubles Over”, “Farewell”.

Elective: Accent

1:00 p.m. Teacher-Nathan Rees Nathan brought the class to order. He described accent as a critical part of Sacred Harp singing—the difference between great singing and everything else. It is a balance of emphasis and holding back to create a rhythmic pulse. One purpose of accent is that it makes it easier to sing together. Accent also distinguishes the character of different modes of time, and brings clarity to the words. There are both primary accents and secondary accents. Primary accents are always on beat one in every measure. Accent works best in a detached (not legato) style of individual notes, not slurred together. Also, stick with notes on the page, as slides obscure the accent. Nathan referred to the Rudiments, pg. 16 and 17, and discussed sections 14, 16, and 20. He led 445 to illustrate accent in 4/4 time, and asked the class to exaggerate. He led 45t to illustrate accent in 3/4 time. Nathan pointed out that accent can confuse leaders sometimes. Accent comes from the voice, not the hand. Accent has to do with the volume placed on a note. It is not about intentionally changing the length of a note, causing a distortion of rhythm. It is not swing. Nathan led 227 as the closing song to showcase the power of accent.

Lesson: New England Composers-Jenks, Wetmore, and Read

2:10 p.m. Teacher-Warren Steel Warren Steel brought the class to order. He provided a handout with bibliography and music by these composers from Connecticut. New England composers were important to the early shape note tradition. It is estimated that 3, 000 songs were published in New England, but that only about 200 were published in southern shape note books. Daniel Read (1757-1836) was published in fourteen New England publications. He wrote anthems as well as set pieces. Ginnie Ely led “Stafford”. Read composed very little after 1795. His style was very influential because of his use of fuging tune. Read was very much a “middle of the road” composer, using religious poetry almost exclusively. Warren led “Providence” and Jerry Schreiber led “Lisbon”. Stephen Jenks (1772-1856) began composing in 1799. Jenks showed an interest in odd literary sources for poetry. Warren gave 126 and 110 as examples, and then, he led “Decay”. Jenks expressed a wide range in his compositions and used more accidentals. He was quite possibly the first composer to use Thomas Moore’s poetry in compositions. Warren led “Sorrow’s Tear”. Jenks stopped printing music in 1819, but continued to write. He became a gentleman farmer, and also made and sold musical instruments. Truman S. Wetmore (1774-1861) had the most compositions published in a manuscript book. He became a Justice of the Peace in 1818. He married a woman named Sylvia. After she died, Wetmore became a physician, married again, and wrote the tune “Sylvia” in honor of his first wife. Warren led “Connecticut” and “Summons”. Rachel Hall led “Sylvia”.

Lesson: How to Beat Time and Leading 101 (t? b?)/Basics

3:30 p.m. Teacher-David Ivey David Ivey brought the class to order. He referred to the Rudiments, pg. 16, section 12. He demonstrated the proper method of keeping time for each mode of time, and then asked the class to practice with him. He said always begin with a down beat, even if there is a rest at the beginning. Keep hand motions steady and try to maintain a constant tempo. In Sacred Harp, keeping time is very important, while in other types of music it is more common to follow the instruments. The class practiced singing and keeping time for each of the exercises on pg. 15 and 16 of the Rudiments. David led 43 and 455 to illustrate time changes. David Ivey and Donna Carlson led 268. David led 34t and 316 to illustrate the use of fermatas.

Lesson: Leading and Bringing in Parts

3:30 p.m. Teacher-Bridgett Hill Kennedy Bridgett began by telling the class about some of her early experiences at Sacred Harp singings, and about the first time she stood in the square. Bridgett said that the center of the square is the best place in the house because of the beautiful, surround sound effect. Bridgett led 168 to demonstrate bringing in parts in opposite positions. Ginnie Ely led 373 and Cecelia Kramer led 380. Warren Steel led 34t to demonstrate leading a slow song and maintaining a steady rhythm. Bridgett talked about unnecessary motions, such as flipping the wrist, being confusing to the class because the motion of the wrist is “out of sync” with the motion of the arm. She encouraged leaders to use smooth, steady, up and down motions. Bridgett encouraged campers to practice leading at home while listening to tapes or CDs, and bring in the sofa, table, and cabinet as practice. Leaders: Jeannette DePoy 183; Clarissa Fetrow 377; Mary Helen Dupree 40.

Elective: Readings on Sacred Harp Personalities

4:45 p.m. Teacher-Buell Cobb Buell Cobb entertained the class with his readings of excerpts from his books as he reflected his experiences with a few notable Sacred Harp figures. He spoke of his acquaintance with Ruth Denson Edwards, and talked of her poise and grace, both at singings and in other places. He recounted tidbits of conversations he had with Dewey Williams, and made comments about his first singing experiences with singers in the Wiregrass region. Buell remembered Jewell Casey Boyd, and told of her unique leading style and her sense of humor. Buell talked about Buford McGraw. Mr. McGraw had a great love for Sacred Harp singing, and a fascination with bee keeping. Buell’s reading also included commentary on T.C. “Tat” Bailey, who once said “Anybody don’t love Sacred Harp singing, then show ‘em the door!” Buell’s account of events that took place during a 1968 performance of Sacred Harp singing by the Auburn University Sacred Harp singers, had everyone wiping away tears of laughter.

Elective: Keying Music

4:45 p.m. Teacher-David Ivey David brought the class to order and told of some of his efforts when learning to key. He cited experiences with skillful keyers such as Leonard Lacy, Jeff Sheppard, and others. The class discussed reasons for attending a keying class which included necessity and teaching. David pointed out that keying is very important to the success of a singing. Practice keyers included Carla Smith 378t; Nell Whitman 34b; Ryan Bowman 39t; and Kitty Brazelton 38b. David said that keying and responding to keyers can both be improved by practice.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. led by Holy Comforter Lodge campers The class was brought to order by Judy Caudle leading 270. The opening prayer was offered by Robert Dupree. Leaders: Clarissa Fetrow 377; Jerry Schreiber 66; Robert Dupree 84; Cecilia Kramer 195; Sean Francis Conway 163b; Karen Willard 128; Dick Patterson 107; Ann Mashchak 32t; Dan Comstock 81t; Carla Smith 35; Clinton Davis 48b; Dan McCarter 159; Lynn Allen 40; Charlotte Ehrman 504; Kate Coxon 72b; Leon Pulsinelle 216; Lisa Bennett 503; Kitty Brazelton 448t; Carol VanderJagt 49b; Daniel Lee 36b; Steve Warner 47b; Geraldine Sharpton 542; Nicole Bowman 163t; Jeff Begley 522; Jonathon Smith 90; David Smead 540; Helen Brown 534. Judy Caudle led 323t as the closing song. Bridgett Kennedy conducted the devotional, expressing her thoughts on belonging to the family of Sacred Harp singers. She led 176t. Robert Dupree dismissed the class with prayer.

Tuesday, June 11


7:00 a.m. Campers could choose to hike, swim, or sing on the Pradat porch. Breakfast followed at8:00 a.m.

Lesson: Rudiments II / Basics

9:00 a.m. Teacher-David Ivey David welcomed the class, and asked what they felt was the most important things they learned from the previous class. Answers included singing full voice, beating time, and intervals. The class told David the things they would like to learn were singing scales better, building confidence and relaxing while singing or leading, and recognition of intervals. The class practiced the major scale. David reviewed parts, measures, notes, and repeats. He then discussed the use of repeats that are marked with D.C. and D.S. The class sang the minor scale. David reviewed the modes of time, and introduced the use of accent. The class practiced keeping time and accent by singing songs on pages 49t, 84, and 39t. David stressed that accent and tempo should fit the words, and also help keep the class singing together.

Lesson: Rudiments II / Advanced

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain Dan led 34b to bring the class to order. He talked about the beginnings of the shape note system of teaching people to sing. The class practiced singing the scale. Dan discussed altered notes, and said that traditional Sacred Harp singers tend to ignore accidentals, but that there are exceptions, and reminded the class to focus on local tradition. He continued by talking about the raised 6th, and again, reminded the class to listen carefully, and follow local tradition. The class sang 313b, 268, and 481. Dan talked about some points of etiquette that should be observed when attending an all-day singing. He encouraged singers to pay attention to the number of leaders in the class. At smaller singings, there is usually time for two-song lessons, but not at larger singings. Be mindful of the time of day before choosing to lead an anthem, and perhaps notify the arranging committee if that is your intention. Dan, again, talked about local tradition and stated that many times a singer will notice unwritten fermatas, rounds, or tempos. Pay attention to the leader. Dan led 408, and then dismissed the class.

Elective: Death and Dying in the Sacred Harp

10:45 a.m. Teacher-Jeannette DePoy Jeannette welcomed the class. She asked the class to think of a song that mentions or reminds them of death and dying. In the Sacred Harp song book, out of over 500 songs, 78 mention death, 26 mention dying, 87 mention heaven, and many others speak to the subject without using those words exactly. She discussed several of the themes in the Sacred Harp, and began with no sickness, pain or sorrow. Jeannette led 460. Geraldine Sharpton led 421. Other songs speak of what happens after death. Jeannette led 392. Sonny Erwin led 454. Another theme is the connection that remains with those gone on before. Carla Smith led 285t. There are songs that talk of rest. Bridgett Kennedy led 285b. Jeannette led 494. Judy Caudle led 403. Other themes included difficult life, no weeping, saying good-bye, caution or warning, and hope to meet again. Leaders: Jeannette DePoy 390, 384, 339, 410t, 414, 267; Steve Warner 122; JoDell Albi 499; Lauren Bock 29b; David Brodeur 204; Len Vanderjagt 38b; Ted Brown 37b; Sonny Erwin 146.

Elective: Music of Edmund Dumas

10:45 a.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain Dan welcomed the class. Jeff Begley led 83b. Dan remarked about the mismatch between the mood of the text and the tune. He said Dumas influenced him as a composer in terms of voicing and relationship between parts. He also mentioned Breedlove and the Rees brothers. Nell Whitman led 115. The class discussed the parallel motion between treble and bass, the interplay between treble and tenor, and the word painting on the word “swarmed”. Leon Pulsinelle led 34t. Jesse noted that the alto part ended on first Fa in the original version. Karen Willard mentioned that Dumas wrote parallel octaves in the tenor, treble, and bass on the word “soul”. Jerry Schreiber led 378t. The class noted the melodic extension on the word “eye”. Ginny Ely led 405. The alto was added later. Jesse mentioned that the song makes more sense structurally in three parts. Not all Dumas songs were written in three parts. Charlotte Ehrman led 323t. The melody first appeared in Wyeth’s II as “Hallelujah” (1813). Lindy Groening led 418, also originally written in three parts. Karen said she liked the alto on the words “weary dove”. Jesse said there was a partner tune called “Dumas” written by Rees. Daniel Lee led 111b. The class sang the chorus with a Scotch snap on the words “die” and “joy”, which Dan said is traditional. Buell Cobb said this was the first Sacred Harp tune he learned, as the secular tune “Three Crows”. Rachel Hall led 329. Dan remarked on the parallel octaves. Ginny Ely led 310. Buell said that when the Wootten family started singing, they were reminded of their fathers who used to sing this particular song. Their tradition is to sing the “Eloi” part of the words slower and add a Scotch snap on the words “not for me”. Cecilia Kramer led 288 in three parts. The question of how to sing “trav’ling was raised. Some singing families insist on two syllables; others do not. The class sang the following songs: “Ceylon’s Isle (WB); “Come On, My Friends” (JB); “Endless Distress” (JB); “Teacher’s Farewell” (JB); “The Wonder” (JB); “Missouri” (JB); “The Good Physician” (JB).

Elective: Ungreatest Hits

1:00 p.m. Teacher-David Ivey David welcomed the class. He said this class was about discussing and singing some of the least popular songs in the Sacred Harp book. All the data referenced for this class was taken from the 2012 minutes. He told the class that 493 wasn’t sung anywhere (officially). There were thirty-seven songs (added together) that were sung less than the number one tune, which was 146. There were 108 songs (added together) that were sung less than the top five. There were three songs in the top ten (313b, 503, 472) that are from the 1991 edition. Leaders: Ginnie Ely 570; Carla Smith 81b; Mary Helen Dupree 231; Lindy Groening 437; Jerry Schreiber 461; Mark Clague 274b; Daniel Lee 161; Lisa Bennett 160t; Judy Caudle 450; Nathan Rees 453; Sonny Erwin 544; Daniel Lee 271b; Gillian Inksetter 82b; Dick Patterson 399t; Lindy Groening 571; JoDell Albi 169.

Elective: Anatomy of the Sacred Harp Songbook

1:00 p.m. Teacher-Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg Jesse welcomed the class. The discussion centered on the examination of The Sacred Harp songbook, how it was originally organized, and how it was reshaped over successive revisions. Jesse cited three major sections of the book. Originally, the first section began on page 27 and included songs appropriate for worship services, noting uncomplicated tunes that everyone could sing. The second section began on page 163 (t? b?). These pieces were more challenging to sing, included more fuging tunes, and were used in singing schools. Part three began on page 225 (t? b?), and included odes and anthems. Jesse discussed the differences each revision committee brought to The Sacred Harp, how those differences enhanced the book, and brought it to its present state.

Lesson: Leading Workshop

3:30 p.m. Teacher-Bridgett Kennedy Bridgett welcomed the class, and asked class members to select a song to lead. The workshop focused on decisions the leader should make before entering the hollow square and how to communicate those desires to the class. Bridgett gave each leader suggestions for improvement. Leaders and selections: Karen Matthews 39t; Ryan Bowman 203; Doug Fower 228; Cecilia Kramer 444; Mairye Bates 84; Barb Patterson 485; Carol VanderJagt 49t; Charlotte Ehrman 486; Robert Dupree 220; Mairye Bates 473.

Lesson: Singing Together

3:30 p.m. Teachers-Lauren Bock and Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg Lauren and Jesse welcomed the class. Lauren began by talking about what makes a good singing and how each person can contribute. She talked about energy, unity, and balance within the singing, but also about the singing community and spiritual maintenance. Three main topics were discussed concerning singing together, and these topics were accent, style, and leading. Jesse said that accent is the glue that holds the song together. Accent encompasses emphasis, dynamics, and brings out the quality of the tune. Accent helps us sing with, not just beside, each other. Leaders: Daniel Lee 82t; Steve Warner 31t; Mark Godfrey 65; Lauren Bock 460; Jesse P Karlsberg 88t, 360. Jesse said that singing style should achieve a certain kind of blend, with accent and rhythm, matching pitch. There is no need to try to sing louder than your neighbor. Lauren talked about the leading experience. She encouraged campers to look up from the book occasionally, and enjoy the time in the square. She also discussed using modest movements of the hand and arm, and discretion in tempo.

Elective: True Stories from the Minutes Book

4:45 p.m. Teachers-Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg, Nathan Rees, and Mark Godfrey The minutes of Sacred Harp singings record the proceedings at singings. They also comprise a rich dataset and a compilation of fascinating stories. In this class, a new iOS app, developed by Mark Godfrey and designed by Lauren Bock, was introduced. Jesse, Mark, and Nathan used both charts and graphs to illustrate Sacred Harp singing trends, and to share some of the stories written down by secretaries over the years. Data from the app revealed that the number of singings held per year (1995-2012) has increased dramatically, as has the number of song leaders and songs led at each singing. The information also showed that one-song lessons had increased during the time frame, but two-song lessons did not decrease. The percentage of conventions and annual singings that featured memorial lessons remained fairly steady during the time frame. Mark Godfrey has calculated an “entrophy” value for each leader who appears in the minutes. Entropy measures the degree to which a leader is predictable or random when selecting songs to lead. The app offers lots of information, and many campers found it very interesting and entertaining.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. led by St. Mary’s Lodge campers Mairye Bates welcomed the class and led 84. Susan Cherones offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Margaret Gillanders 192; Susan Cherones 300; Melissa Musick 34b; Jerry Schreiber 362; Gillian Inksetter 151; Nathan Rees and Hui Cox 230; Clarissa Fetrow 33b; Daniel Lee 31t; Deborah Marsh 272; David Brodeur 436; Clinton Davis 294; Donna Carlson 268; Nell Whitman 102; Ted Brown 74b; Karen Matthews 39t; Cassie Allen 506; Barb Patterson 564; Dan McCarter 47b; Steve Warner 81t; Sonny Erwin 113; Mark Godfrey 542; JoDell Albi 328; Rachel Hall 568; Carla Smith 399b. Geraldine Sharpton presented the devotional and led 481. Susan Cherones dismissed the class with prayer.

Wednesday, June 12


7:00 a.m. Campers could choose to hike, swim, or sing on the Pradat porch. Breakfast followed at8:00 a.m.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Basics

9:00 a.m. Teachers-David Ivey and Stuart Ivey A handout was provided to the class. The handout included diagrams of the musical notations found in the Rudiments, historical notes, and information on leading preparation, mechanics, and inspiration. David Ivey began by reviewing the major and minor scales. On page 25 of the Rudiments, the class sang “Fire Alarm” in 2/4 time and practiced beating time, and on page 24 (t? b?) of the Rudiments, they sang “The Young Convert” in 4/4 time, and practiced keeping time. Stuart Ivey had the class review the steps of the scale, and emphasized the importance of learning the notes to improve sight reading skills. Vocal health, hydration, and breathing were also discussed.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Advanced

9:00 a.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain Dan Brittain noted that breathing points in Sacred Harp singing are unlike what is found in traditional music. For example, these points may fall mid-word or mid-phrase. As in 445; Dan said most often breathing will be on a bar line though not always. On page 320, the class looked at the time changes. Dan said to keep the pulse the same throughout the song. On 240, the class examined the shift from minor to major. Dan pointed out the change from 6/4 to 4/4 time, and the importance of watching the leader to keep the pulse the same. The class practiced watching the leader on 329. Dan modeled the change in beating while transitioning from 3/2 to 6/8 on 387. He demonstrated on 417 that it was easier to change time when it changes at rests. To close, Dan distributed copies of “Call John” taken from the Rudiments of the 1911 James Edition, and suggested it as a good exercise in learning to count beats.

Elective: Thoughts on Sacred Harp Etiquette

10:45 a.m. Teacher-Buell Cobb Buell Cobb began by saying that singings were considered religious experiences. Original traditions in Sacred Harp singing have gradually accepted changes, in that everyone is encouraged to lead, not just singing school masters, and thus have become somewhat more democratic. Buell quoted some excerpts from the articles of the Southern Musical Convention (that first occurred in 1845) and from the Chattahoochee Convention (which started in 1852) that addressed some points of etiquette. Buell stated that his bedrock Sacred Harp principle was to focus on things that unite us and not on things that might divide us. Buell continued by expressing some personal observations as follows: it is dangerous if the front bench does not know if they have the ball or if the leader does; the front bench should watch the leader for non-verbal cues during the notes (for example, faster or slower tempo); pauses are good between the notes and verses; one should know the song well enough to be able to give clear directions; the front bench may ask “how many verses?” on a five verse song, but should not equate this with the senate floor in a filibuster; the leader has the responsibility not to induce tedium; a good leader has a sense of what the class wants; a second repeat should be reserved for special times (example: a good chemistry between the class and the leader); there should not be an anthem early or late in the day (in fact, he suggested that one might consider alerting the arranging committee as to their wishes to lead an anthem); look up at the leader, especially experienced ones; there is a whole world above your book.

Elective: Songs of P. Dan Brittain

1:00 p.m. Teacher-Dan Brittain Dan began the class by leading 353 and 472. Dan stated that “Akin” was named for Georgia singers. Dan wrote 481 and named it for his friend, Leutinant James Novakoski, and wrote the music before the words. The original arrangement was written in 2/2 which changed to 4/4 at the fugue. Dan prefers the version in the book, but he would not be offended if the original arrangement was used. The class sang selections from a packet of Dan’s songs not published in the Sacred Harp. The first song “Chmielno” was named for a town in Poland. The class sang “Dean Street”, and then “Cowling”. “Cowling” is named after a friend of Dan’s, who is an organist. The class sang “Self Examination” which Dan wrote with his friend, John Bayer, and has revised several times. Dan led “Beard”, named after Kelly Beard, who was the first Sacred Harp singer he met. “Garden State” was written in honor of George Seiler, and was originally written in 3/2 time. The words are a paraphrase of his favorite song. The class sang “Hauff”, and then “Memorial Anthem”.

Memorial Lesson Class and Memorial Lesson

2:10 p.m. Teacher-Judy Caudle Judy Caudle brought the class to order by leading 354b, instructing us to particularly attend to the poetry. Though there are a variety of lessons in Sacred Harp Rudiments, the memorial lesson has a special place, and a 100+ year history in our tradition. The poetry of the Sacred Harp instructs us in the elements of the memorial lesson: it is a time of quiet reflection (”...from war’s dread confusion I pensively strayed”); a time to confront our own mortality (”...ye living men come view the ground where you must shortly lie...”); and a time to reflect on memories and relationships with others (”...what peaceful hours...how sweet the memories still.”). Judy encouraged us to overcome personal trepidations about participating, if we are invited to give a memorial lesson, and to ease our anxieties by focusing on others, not on ourselves. As resources for a memorial lesson, the speaker may employ any of the following: a book of devotions, the poetry of the Sacred Harp, a Bible verse, or a poem. One may simply speak from the heart, and alternatively, the list of names may stand alone without further embellishment. Though the presentation may vary, the memorial lesson has one message: we are bound by this music. A variety of themes may be employed to illustrate this union of spirit: relationship focus (“I belong to this band...”, “Blessed be the tie that binds...”, “I weep and I mourn and I move slowly on...”); a theme of struggle (“dark and thorny is the desert through which pilgrims make their way”); a theme of hope for the future (“our God our help in ages past”); or the theme that death is a part of life (“part...have crossed...and part are crossing now.”) The memorial lesson typically closes with a prayer.

Judy turned the class over to the Memorial Committee. Ted Brown offered his experience of genuine love and caring from the Sacred Harp community at the time of personal bereavement, and urged the class to continue this practice. The following list of the deceased was read by Len VanderJagt: Bud Oliver, Ressie Harbison, Myrtle Ann Beasley—Alabama; Don Buswell—Arkansas; Betty Curry Musick—Colorado; Eva Padgett—Florida; Violet Thomason—Georgia; Paul Silberman—New Jersey; Patty Kneale—North Carolina; Barbara Hall—New Hampshire; Clayton Ezell—Tennessee; Margaret Stiffler—Washington; Monica Graf, Isobel Inksetter—Canada. Ted and Len led 549.

Daniel Lee spoke and read the following list of sick and shut-ins: Elizabeth Marie Nussbaum, Marjorie Dawson, Charlie Derleth, Bess Fitzgerald, Daphene Causey, Sharon DuPriest, S.T. Reed, Lessie Reed, Rodney Willard, Barbara Willard, J.L. Hopper, Glenda Hopper, Carroll Lunsford, Jeff Sheppard, Shelbie Sheppard, Val Eng, Rhett Barker, Edith Owen, Curtis Owen, Sally Foreman, C.T. Williams, and Nadine Clarke. Daniel led 31t. A closing prayer was offered by Donna Carlson.

Elective: Leading Workshop

3:15 p.m. Teacher-Bridgett Hill Kennedy Bridgett reminded the class of the points made in Buell Cobb’s Sacred Harp Etiquette class, and suggested that leaders should always be prepared and know the basics. Watching experienced leaders will help, but refrain from imitating them because every leader is unique. The following leaders practiced in the class: Geraldine Sharpton 148; Douglas Fower 455; Susan Cherones 173; Nicole Bowman 85; Lynn Allen 87; Joe Vickers 112; Charlotte Ehrman 113; Kate Coxon 168; Dick Patterson 399t; Barb Patterson 543; Lindy Groening 43.

Elective: Advanced Rudiments with Historical Perspective

3:15 p.m. Teacher-Warren Steel Warren Steel distributed a handout “The Moods of Time Compared”. He told the class that rudiments have been in tune books since the seventeenth century. Examination of them can show us how practices have changed over time. Warren Steel led 400, and stated that music is both science and art, but not magic. Parameters such as pitch, loudness, and timbre can be measured. From the handout, marks indicated nine moods of time with the beats per minute. This was frequently expressed as the length of a pendulum to result in the desired period. A one meter pendulum takes close to one second to swing. The leader’s hand should move smoothly like the pendulum swings. In most of the world, 2/2 is taken as faster than 4/4; however, our Rudiments specify the opposite and how much variation is allowed. If terms such as “brisk, quickly, slow” appear on the music, tempo may be adjusted by a twenty five percent factor. Warren demonstrated 3/2 (“Idumea”) as slow, and 3/4 (“New Britain”) as faster. B.F. White is credited with the removal of two previously included moods and slowed the remaining moods down. Raymond Hamrick has documented the change in 4/4 at singings over time, showing an increase in tempo. Warren led 59, and demonstrated the 1980 practice of rushing through the first ending and repeat. We now adhere more closely to the music as written. Accent does not mean getting louder; rather the non-accented notes should be softer. The class discussed the accenting pattern in 330t. White’s Rudiments say to avoid screeching and growling (an indication that the pitch is too high), and to avoid dullness and languor (an indication that the pitch is too low). White suggests that high notes, quick and short notes should be sung softer. His model was the German flute. White believed that minor songs should be softer than major, and when the bass goes above the tenor, sing the bass softer and the tenor louder. The class sang 284. Warren gave the sentiment of B.F. White, saying “possess yourself with the words and make them your own”. The class sang 39t and 45t, and then were dismissed.

Elective: Tunebook Creation and Revision

4:25 p.m. Teacher-Rachel Hall Rachel Hall opened the class with 22b (ShH) from The Shenandoah Harmony and pointed out the similarities between it and 33b from the 1991 Sacred Harp revision. Rachel explained that since tunes existed by oral tradition, there are different arrangements of similar tunes. The class received two handouts: “Tunebook Creation and Revision” and “Tunebook Compilation and Revision”. The class sang and compared different versions of tunes from the handout such as “Pisgah” and “Christian Triumph”. Rachel shared factors that affect the survival of a songbook: support of community; musicality; text; physical appearance of the book; financial capital and business sense; technical research; attention to detail; and lots and lots of time. Rachel talked about the committee and the process for putting together The Shenandoah Harmony. Warren Steel led “Jerusalem” and Ginnie Ely led “Shepherd”. David Ivey talked about his experience of working on the 1991 Sacred Harp revision. He said committee members were selected from different parts of the singing south and from two different generations. David said the first task was to find songs to remove from the 1971 version of The Sacred Harp. The second task was to review compositions and potentially add songs. A candidate list was compiled, a singing was held, and the songs recorded. The recordings were reviewed to decide which songs to add to the book for the 1991 revision.

Community Singing

7:00 p.m. Led by Mullen and Stough Lodges.

The class was called to order by Cecelia Kramer leading 59. Daniel Lee offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Jeff Begley, Karen Mathews, Lindy Groening, and Peg Groening 471; Carla Smith, Carlton Chambers, and John Martin 569t; Ainslie Allen and Karen Ivey 217; Natalie Davis and Mark Davis 87; Warren Steel and Rachel Hall 522; Nell Whitman, Nicole Bowman, Ryan Bowman, and Jerry Schreiber 472; Jo Dell Albi, Anne Heider, and Steve Warner 209; Richard Mauldin and Eugene Forbes 168; Andrew Mashchak, Ann Mashchak, and Dan Comstock 299; Don Keeton 480; Karen Willard, Kate Coxon, Clarissa Fetrow, Nancy Price, and Bill Price 429; Joe Vickers, Gillian Inksetter, and Sonny Erwin 385b; Jeff Sheppard and Pam Nunn 556; Charlotte Ehrman, Leon Pulsinelle, Doug Fower, Kitty Brazelton, and Hui Cox 479; David Brodeur, Lisa Bennett, Susan Cherones, and David Smead 228; Linda Sides 215; Dan McCarter and Daniel Lee 312b; Ann Jett and Julianna Jett 512; Dick Patterson, Barb Patterson, Pamela Minor, and Gill Minor 34b; Cassie Allen 432.


Jeff Begley led 501 to bring the class to order. Leaders: Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg and Lauren Bock 349; Angela Myers 411; David Ivey and Karen Ivey 203; Mary Helen Dupree, Lynn Allen, and Donna Carlson 30t; Martha Rogers, Melissa Musik, Ginnie Ely, and Deborah Marsh 282; Mark Davis and Hubert Nall 176b; Stuart Ivey 67; Jonathon Smith and Idy Kiser 77t; Geraldine Sharpton, Robert Dupree, and Chris Adkins 84; Len VanderJagt, Carol VanderJagt, Cecelia Kramer, and Mark Clague 565; Judy Caudle, Bridgett Hill Kennedy, and Jeannette DePoy 186; Sean Francis Conway, Clinton Davis, Mairye Bates, Meghan Welsh, Susan Willis Powers, and Carla Smith 347. Dick Patterson offered the closing prayer.

Camp was dismissed Thursday morning following 7:00 a.m. breakfast.

SHMHA President—Jeff Sheppard; Camp Director—David Ivey