Minutes of Sacred Harp Singings

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Camp Fasola 2012 Youth Session

Camp Lee, Anniston, Alabama

July 2-6, 2012

Monday, July 2

Registration for Camp FaSoLa 2012, Youth Session, began at 4:00 p.m. Campers were issued t-shirts, procedures lists, maps, and identification buttons. Campers had free time for recreation; followed by counselor-cabin orientation sessions, followed by dinner at 6:00 p.m. Orientation began at 7:00 p.m. with class singing following.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. led by the counselors. Co-Chairmen Judy Caudle and Karen Ivey brought the class to order by leading 32t. Leaders: Lela Crowder, Elizabeth Clay, Dinah East, Rebekah Gilmore, Cheyenne Ivey, Paula Oliver, Micah Rogers, Philippa Stoddard 101t; Blake Sisemore, Anthony Kiser, Will Schnorenberg, Ethan Schultz, Tom Stokes, Conrad Tegtmeier 100; Rachel Rudi, Jennifer Betz, Jessa Cherones, Elinore Hardy, Dylenn Nelson, Ashton Rogers, Elizabeth Schultz 176t; Drew Smith, Matthew Betz, Connor Campbell, Ethan Corbett, Jonathon Pendleton, Russ Pope, River Skrenes 129; Deidre Montgomery, Anna Bowen, Ailee Mann, Anna Grace Sipe, Katy Wacaster, Alvaro Duarte, William Clay, Justin Corbett, Benjamin Mann, Nicholas Mann, Jubal Schultz 49t; Lauren Bock, Anna Marie Bethune, Benedicta Hardy, Lainey Martin, Holly Mixon, Lilly Underwood 59; J.R. Hardman, Jesse P. Karlsberg, Hannah Land 162; Anita Landess, Lorie Wacaster, Guy Bankes 481; Jill Coyne and Carol Munro Mosley 84; Jackson Fleder, Willis McCumber, and Nathan Berry 448b; Sharon Secola and Ellen Lueck 41t; Eva Striebeck and Howard Tegtmeier 385t; Liz Kiser and Cassie Allen 212; Stuart Ivey, Tommy Schultz, and Marcos Whitman 133; Eimear O’Donovan, Jason Steidl, and Bethany Towne 472; Ethan Hardy and Katy Kanfer 68b; Jo Pendleton and David Ivey 86; Idy Kiser and Reed Schilbach 122; Rob Kelley and Tom George 156; Amy Armstrong and Jeannette DePoy 99; Dinah East and Shelby Castillo 47b; Rene Greene, Lori Rogers, Jeff Sheppard, and Pam Nunn 53; Christopher Mann and Aldo Ceresa 31t; Marilyn Bradley and Susan Cherones 58; Jackson Harcrow, Blake Sisemore, and Drew Smith 222; Alberta Hard and Elinore Hardy 34t; Robin Betz, Jennifer Betz, Matthew Betz, and Elizabeth Betz 268. Judy Caudle and Karen Ivey led 285t as the closing song. The devotional was conducted by Alvaro Duarte.

Tuesday, July 3

Lesson: Rudiments I / Youth I / Basics

9:00 a.m. Teachers Lauren Bock and Jesse P. Karlsberg began the singing school by asking the students the questions “what is sound?,” “what is music?,” “what is pitch?,” and “what is rhythm?” The class determined that music is a succession of pleasing tones, and decided that pitch relates to how high or low a musical sound is, whereas rhythm relates to the lengths of notes in time. The teachers then asked the students “What is Sacred Harp music?” The class discussed this as well as the ways in which Sacred Harp is different from other kinds of music.

The singing school turned to the topic of melodics. Lauren and the class looked at the different shape notes, their names, and their purpose. Lauren led the class in singing the major scale and the intervals within the scale. Jesse then led the class in an exercise where students holding shape notes stood in a row according to height and had to pass the notes back and forth to put the scale in order.

After a break the singing school turned to rhythmics. Jesse asked the students to define tempo, and after some discussion, taught the class the different durations of notes and rests. Lauren led the class in an exercise using notes and rests made out of felt and the students picked different sets of notes and rests that added up to an equal duration.

Lesson: Rudiments I / Youth II / Basics

9:00 a.m. This class included Sacred Harp basics of scales, intervals, modes of time, and accent with teaching methods appropriate for older youth. Stuart Ivey opened the lesson with some breathing exercises for the singers. In singing any good note, Stuart said there are four characteristics to consider; pitch (how high or how low); duration/rhythm (how long the note is held); style/accent; volume/dynamics. Stuart had the class sing the tenor line of 31t, emphasizing how each of the four items ought to be kept in mind to sing our best.

Drew Smith had the class review the major and minor scales. He talked about the tonic note (fa or la) and how successive notes advance in degree from the tonic sound. He had the class review 37b to exercise his point, taking note of where voice parts begin and end. This helps a singer establish the key and understand the movement of the chords. Drew reviewed the layout of each song with the clef furthest to the left, then the time signature and then the sharps and flats that determine the key of the song. This is good to know, though not essential for singers who are not keying a song. The time signature of a song is vital for a leader to be aware of as they lead a lesson. Drew also explained the names at the top of a song. The name and date on the top left refers to the author of the lyrics and the year of their creation. The name on the top right attributes a song’s melody and harmony to a composer. The Bible verse underneath the title helps a singer contextualize the song and its meaning.

Stuart had the class practice singing their intervals on the staff. A good singer can approach an unfamiliar song and sing it well by practicing their intervals and other characteristics of a note. Stuart reviewed the duration of time each note receives when we sing, making parallel to amounts of money. He pointed to the second brace of 358 explaining that joined eighth notes indicate carried syllables, whereas, flagged notes indicate separate syllables of a text.

Lesson: Rudiments I / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. The class began by singing 39b. Sam Sommers stated to the class that “the only requirement to sing Sacred Harp is a desire to sing Sacred Harp”. Traditions are maintained because they keep the music alive! Tradition means we pass on that which we have received. We do not invent tradition; it is given to us.

The class reviewed the scales and covered Rhythmics on pg. 15 of the Rudiments. By definition, the leader is always right, so you have to look up to see the leader! The seven modes of time were explained—three common modes, two triple modes and two common modes. The class reviewed 70t to demonstrate 2/2 time, observing the rests. For an explanation of repeats and accent, the class sang 108b (4/4 time) and had further discussion of accent and tempo on 170 (2/4 time).

Sam referred to the Rudiments for explanation and discussion held during the class. In regard to leading, Sam said to always start and end with your hand up. Discussion of etiquette in Sacred Harp included leading with or without a book. Sam said that using the book is recommended. Past generations greatly emphasized leading without a book; however, he teaches to lead with your book. Do not be too creative with tempos. Finally, use modest arm strokes while leading, and keep your movement within the frame of your body. The class ended by singing 137, with the alto as written.

Elective: Sacred Harp Composition 101 (t? b?)

10:45 a.m. This class included singers who have recently begun to compose music and those interested in doing so. Aldo Ceresa shared tips for getting started writing parts and basic elements of harmony. Aldo opened the class by singing 39t. Aldo asked, “What makes this music sound the way it does and makes people want to sing it for over one hundred years?” The focus of this class was how to write music in the tradition of Sacred Harp music, and how to write music the Sacred Harp singers will love and enjoy. Aldo told the class to use the Sacred Harp Rudiments as their guide in writing Sacred Harp music. Look for patterns and learn to recognize different styles in the book, for example, camp meeting songs, fuging tunes, folk songs, or hymns. Look for common note patterns. Another way is to learn from living composers.

Aldo told the class to sing your music as you write it. Do not rely on computers or instruments too much. Singers will be the real test in the quality of your song. Aldo suggested writers begin with the text, and make sure you have the correct mode of time. Writing involves a lot of trial and error. Remember that music is a sort of conversation between singers and composers. Incorporate feedback about what you write and do not get too attached to your notes! Write the parts in the order of tenor, bass, treble, and then alto. Fit your tune in a key to minimize ledger lines. Sing the different parts to get a feel for them and keep the part within comfortable ranges. Tenor is the melody. The bass anchors the harmony and is often the root note. The bass should always end on the key note. Treble adds brilliance and harmonic definition to the music, and the alto is the filling that makes the tune complete. Aldo presented the class with charts of common chords in major and minor. For the remainder of Camp, this class participated in a round-robin writing exercise called “Team Tunesmith”. The writing exercises will be sung at the Composium session at the end of Camp.

Elective: Sacred Harp and the Silver Screen

10:45 a.m. This class explored Sacred Harp’s influence in film with Lela Crowder. Lela posed a question to the class, “When has music set a tone?” Responses from the class were from horror films to Disney, church services, weddings, funerals to military music. Lela’s second question was” What kind of reaction did you have to Sacred Harp music when you first heard it?” Most agree the music is haunting and powerful, and everybody is involved to the highest degree. Both elements of joy and sorrow are felt. Lela asked, “Can you think of an instance where you did not expect to hear Sacred Harp music?” Some examples given were alternative music, public places, and artists who make their own arrangements. The class sang 312b and reactions about the song were that it was an upbeat, joyful, minor tune with a majestic mood. Lela presented some clips beginning with the film Geronimo. The class heard excerpts of 312b in different scenes. The scenes depicted majestic vistas with instrumentals and full orchestral arrangements heard in the background. Another scene in Geronimo plays 457 and builds in intensity during the sentencing of traitors. The final clip shows a military band with “Oh Come Away” and a stringed arrangement of 457.

Hugh McGraw was shown in a clip from The Long Ride Home singing a song from The Social Harp during a funeral scene. Adaptations of “Happy Land” were played through the opening credits and during the closing scene in Arsenic and Old Lace. A clip from a remake of The Ladykillers features 408 while an assassin tries to kill an elderly lady. Two of the most familiar songs (47b and 282) among Sacred Harp singers were shown in clips from Cold Mountain.

Lesson: Best of the Ungreatest Hits

1:00 p.m. David Ivey greeted the class and led 169. According to the minutes, from 1995 to 2010, 169 was the “least” used song. David speculated as to why some songs are sung so little. David gave the statistic that from 1995 to 2011, the song led most often was 146, and the second most led was 155. David made note of the fact that he had noticed through the years that popularity of songs have an ebb and flow to them. The class was given a list of the least used Sacred Harp songs and encouraged to lead some of them from time to time. The list can also be found on the Fasola website. The remaining time was used singing some of the “ungreatest hits”. Leaders: Bethany Towne 429; Jeannette DePoy 516; Carol Munro Mosley 152; Marcus Whitman 416; Hannah Land 289; Deidra Montgomery 185; Holly Hamrick 88b; Aldo Ceresa 407; Sam Sommers 412; Oliver Stokes and Ethan Hardy 462; Blake Sisemore 404; Rob Kelley 184; Alvaro Duarte 359; Christopher Mann 92; Amy Armstrong and J.R. Hardman 487; Cassie Allen 130; Nathan Rees 517; Judy Caudle 202; Tom Stokes 360; Katy Kanfer 132; Alvaro Duarte 126.

Elective: More Rudiments and Practice

2:30 p.m. This elective session was held for those who wanted more Rudiments and practice. Robert Kelley discussed the three departments of music at length in this class: rhythmics, melodics, dynamics, and another important component, poetry. Robert emphasized that the music is primarily a vehicle for expressing the poetry. He gave these things to consider with respect to the words; timing, rhythm, accent, and pronunciation. Robert discussed the relationships between accent and timing, melody and accent, tune and text, and then gave examples of when the accent, tune, or text may conflict. Robert reviewed accent, rhythm, modes of time, and how to select an appropriate tempo for a song based on the mode of time. Class discussion included the Rudiments and how we sing today differs from earlier recommendations. Robert led 39b and 183.

Lesson: How To Beat the Seven Modes of Time / Youth

4:00 p.m. The mechanics of beating time for the seven modes of time used in Sacred Harp was the focus in this class, including demonstration and practice.

Jesse P. Karlsberg explained the three different types of time signatures: common, triple, and compound. The time signature is a symbol of two numbers. The top number is the number of beats in a measure. The bottom number tells what kind of note gets the beat. The class gave different examples of how to fill a measure. Jesse referred to pgs. 15-16 in the Rudiments, and the class practiced singing and keeping time to the exercises. The differences in 4/4 and 2/2 time were discussed in terms of relative tempo. The class sang 49t as an example of 2/2 time, 37b as an example of 4/4 time, and 87 as an example of 2/4 time.

Stuart Ivey talked about leading a song, and encouraged class members to stand with good posture and use your hinges to lead. He said do not use the shoulder or wrist as much as the elbow. The class sang 49b as an example of 3/2 time, and then 45t as an example of 3/4 time. The class practiced compound time by singing 146 as an example of 6/4 time, and 196 as an example of 6/8 time. Stuart continued with tips about leading and then dismissed the class.

Lesson: Leading Bringing in Parts / Adults

4:00 p.m. Through workshop songs led by members of the class, this lesson taught the basics of how to lead a song at a Sacred Harp singing, focusing on what decisions the leader should make before stepping into the hollow square and how to communicate your desires to the class. An introduction was given by Judy Caudle, who reminded the leaders to accent with the voice, not the hand. Leaders: Judy Caudle 155; J.R. Hardman 504; Deidra Montgomery 316; Carol Munro Mosley 196; Blake Sisemore 556; Holly Hamrick 300; Bethany Towne 397; Willis McCumber 472; Ellen Lueck 193; Susan Cherones 209; Lori Rodgers 183; Ethan Hardy 91; Eimear O’Donovan 182; Jackson Harcrow 532.

Lesson: Songs in Major and Minor

4:00 p.m. This class practiced singing major and minor tunes with Scott DePoy and Jeannette DePoy. They discussed why major and minor songs sound different.

Elective: Dinner on the Ground

5:00 p.m. This class explored the significance and evolution of “dinner on the ground” in the Sacred Harp tradition with Karen Ivey. Dinner stories were shared. How to organize and prepare a meal and how to transport your food to a singing was discussed. The class made recipe books of favorite dishes from past and present cooks.

Elective: Arranging Committee

5:00 p.m. Determining and announcing the order of song leaders at a singing is more than just calling names. It is one of the key ingredients in an excellent singing. The class covered what to consider when arranging at a singing and participated in fun hands-on arranging exercises with Jesse Karlsberg.

Elective: Keying Music

5:00 p.m. Practical considerations were offered by David Ivey for keying Sacred Harp songs. The most important thing about keying is listening. Few people can just do it. Most people that key do it by listening, observing, and persevering. Having a person to encourage you helps, but keying is mostly self-learned. According to pg. 17, Chapter 3 in the Rudiments, Sacred Harp music should be pitched so all singers can comfortably reach their parts. The last note in the bass will be the tonic. Tonics of major songs are “fa” and minor songs are “la”. The tonic note is the home note and the most important one. Most people learn to key out of necessity simply because there is no else to do it. The hardest part is having the courage to key. Start practicing at small singings. One learns from making mistakes. It helps to listen to recordings. If you want to key, you must master the scale. Seventy percent of songs in Sacred Harp are in major. If you have some typical songs memorized, you can apply that remembered note to a new song in the same key. Consider the time of day when pitching. For example, key the same song lower at 9:30 a.m. than what you might key it at 11:30 a.m. You can usually pitch a little higher after lunch, if it is a strong singing. Practice, practice, practice!

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. led by Youth Girls. Co-chairmen Benedicta Hardy and Elizabeth Schultz led 86. The opening prayer was offered by Jennifer Betz.

Leaders: Holly Mixon and Katy Wacaster 388; Jeannette DePoy 89; Connor Campbell and Alvaro Duarte 74b; Shelby Castillo and Jason Steidl 40; Hannah Land and Jesse Karlsberg 432; Christopher Mann and Bethany Towne 138 (t? b?); Benjamin Mann, Nicholas Mann, and William Clay 335; Erica Hinton, Matt Hinton, and Eli Hinton 105; Nathan Reese and Jonathon Smith 449; William Schnorenberg and Blake Sisemore 186; Ollie Stokes and Eimear O’Donovan 445; Jonathon Pendleton and Eli Hinton 354b; Ellen Lueck and Eva Striebeck 369; Jubal Schultz, Jarius Schultz, Jedidiah Schultz, and Tommy Schultz 70b; Marcus Whitman and Drew Smith 183; Jeff Sheppard, Shelbie Sheppard, Rene Greene, and Pam Nunn 216; Lauren Bock, Anna Hinton, and Jeannette DePoy 276; Benedicta Hardy and Ethan Hardy 33b; David Ivey and Susan Harcrow 456; Justin Corbett and Ethan Corbett 155; Holly Hauck and Jackson Fleder 61; Amy Armstrong and Donna Sewell 460; Lori Rodgers and Jo Pendleton 503; Tom Stokes and Konrad Tegtmeier 119; Aldo Ceresa and Samuel Sommers 550; Katy Kanfer and Anita Landess 44; Deidra Montgomery, Rachel Rudi, and Lela Crowder 153. Benedicta Hardy and Elizabeth Schultz led 45b as the closing song. The closing prayer was offered by Jennifer Betz. The devotional was conducted by Lainey Martin.

Wednesday, July 4

Lesson: Rudiments II / Youth I / Basics

9:00 a.m. The second day of singing school began with rhythmics. Teachers Lauren Bock and Jesse P. Karlsberg asked the students “what is a measure?” and “what is a measure bar?” Having settled on answers, the class next turned to the modes of time. Jesse and Lauren introduced each of the seven modes of time. The students demonstrated, using notes and rests of their choosing, some of the different combinations that can fill a measure for each of the modes.

After a stretch break, the class reviewed melodics. Lauren asked the class “what is an octave?” Lauren suggested that if a scale is like steps on a staircase, then the octave is like successive stories in a house. Using a diagram that demonstrated this analogy, Lauren pointed at the front step of the house while Jesse sang the lowest note he could manage. Lauren then led Jesse upward, and he sang all the way up to the top of the house (much to the amusement of the class). The instructors then reviewed the major scale and demonstrated how melodies can be made out of notes in the scale by leading the class in the songs “Joy to the World” and “Twinkle, Twinkle” while pointing at the appropriate notes on the scale.

The class then turned to a page in The Sacred Harp. The students looked at how melodics and rhythmics were each indicated in the musical notation on the page. Lauren and Jesse taught the class the “anatomy of a song,” pointing out the different parts, and characters such as repeat markers, slurs, bars, and ties. The class then sang the melody to 37b before concluding for the day.

Lesson: Rudiments II / Youth II / Basics

9:00 a.m. Stuart Ivey and Deidra Montgomery taught the basics of scales, intervals, modes of time, and accent appropriate for older youths. Stuart told the class that there were four things to know: volume, pitch, rhythm, and accent. He gave the class an exercise in scales where each separate note of the scale, enlarged on paper, was randomly placed under eight seats in the class and the eight class members that found a note under their seat had to line up in order of height, and then exchange notes until they were in the correct order of the scale. The class members were given thirty-five seconds to get in the proper order. After lining up in the correct order of the scale, the class sang the notes. This exercise was done a second time and was completed in twenty-two seconds.

Deidra presented to the class the anatomy of Sacred Harp according to the Rudiments found in the front of the book. The class turned to pg. 15 of the Rudiments, and sang the exercises for each of the modes of time and beat time while singing. The class reviewed joined flags, slurs, and ties, and learned the difference between mandatory repeats and optional repeats. On pg. 14 of the Rudiments, the class reviewed the D.C. or “da capo”, and then how a bird’s eye works on pg. 17. On pg. 17, section 18 of the Rudiments, she explained triplets, and the class sang 31t. Deidra explained singing with accent and that it helps to emphasize the text correctly and helps keep the class together while singing. The best sounding songs are the ones sung with accent. There are primary and secondary accents. In 4/4 time, the primary accent is on the first note and the secondary accent is on the third note. The class turned to pg. 15 of the Rudiments, and sang the examples of each mode of time with proper accent. Tempo is the speed of beats in each mode of time, and the class discussed faster tempo versus slower tempo. Deidra stated that when you are leading, keep the tempo you want and do not change it or let the class change it.

To complete the lesson, Stuart and the class practiced singing the minor scale.

Lesson: Rudiments II / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. Sam Sommers welcomed the class and offered prayer. Sam said that everyone here is a Sacred Harp singer and the only requirement is the desire to be a Sacred Harp singer. Music is made up of rhythmics, melodics, and dynamics. We only sing in two keys, “fa” and “la”. The class practiced the major scale and singing intervals. The spaces between the notes are tremendously important. Minor is another mood; it does not mean sad. For example, “God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen” is in minor but is not a sad song. Sam provided the class with a handout of the Rudiments from the B. F. White Book and practiced intervals. Practice creates a firm foundation in learning Sacred Harp music.

The class reviewed the different modes of time on pg. 15 and 16 of the Rudiments. Sam instructed that when leading, begin with the hand up and move it down towards the center of the earth. The leader should keep their beat pattern within “the frame of modesty”. The class reviewed 31t, noting the triplets. Sam suggested choosing something specific to focus on while at a singing, such as watching the leader or practicing accent. Rests are a period of silence, so silent “you could hear a bird chirp”! Transgressions against a rest include holding a note too long, foot tapping, or talking (“I fry my pies in butter”). The last note of every bass line is the tonic. The class reviewed 98 for compound time, accent, and repeats. The beginning repeat is mandatory and the ending repeat is optional. The class closed by singing 62.

Elective: Innovative Sounds in Sacred Harp 1960-1991

10:30 a.m. The class included a mixture of stories and discussion of songs composed for the 1960-1991 revisions of the Sacred Harp that take dispersed harmony in new directions, and why we enjoy certain sounds in the book. Robert Kelley brought the class to order by leading 512. The class looked at 462 and Robert noted the moments where the bass rises above the tenor and where the treble goes from a high tonic “fa” to a “mi”. Since 1960, this had become more common. Robert discussed the music of Hugh McGraw, Raymond Hamrick, and Marcus Cagle. Hugh McGraw’s music is influenced by gospel (see 548). He generally opposes discords. Raymond Hamrick uses discords strategically. He is influenced by classical music. Much of his music has a “tall sound”, which is also found in McGraw and Cagle tunes. Marcus Cagle also studied classical music. He liked to add a bit of “science” to his music: accidentals, weird chords. His music fits extraordinarily well with Sacred Harp accent. The phenomenon of tall songs led to 549, where the bass and tenor or treble are more than an octave apart. He also noted the predominance of sweet chords in the song. There are precedents for tall songs in the music of J.P. and H.S. Reese (e.g. 39b and 400). Robert led 521, another tall song featuring sweet chords. Robert referred to the song on page 378b. The song has several moments where the tenor crosses the bass and several discords. Robert had the class look at 385t, a similar song in major. Discords appear often in the Sacred Harp.

One thing Sacred Harp composers have done is to give honor to other singers by attributing a composition to them. For example, 354t by J. Monroe Denton was written in 1980, a year after the singer had died! It was written by Raymond C. Hamrick. Denton was a prominent South Georgia singer and singing master. Hugh McGraw wrote tribute songs for singers, dedicating the song through its title (e.g. 548 and 516). Hugh McGraw assisted J. A. Ayers with writing 506. Another gift song (461) written by Raymond Hamrick is attributed to Terry Wootten. Tribute songs discussed with titles indicating they were attributed to other singers were 503 (for Lloyd Redding and Loyd Landrum), 288, 313b, 464. The practice of gift songs is not unique to Sacred Harp, and is a common practice to denominational hymnals as well. Another innovative sound since 1960 is ultra-dispersed harmony or sinewy sound. As an example, Robert led 485. These ultra-dispersed songs often have very low basses and very high trebles. They often feature many discords or whole strings of discords. The class sang 504, 505, and 372. Robert introduced another characteristic of new songs in the book called distinctive chords. The class sang 506, and Robert noted the unusual voicing of the 5-1-2 chord midway through the bottom brace. In 572, there is discordance at second-to-the-last chord and the alto preceding, written with Charlene Wallace in mind. Robert closed the session with 573.

Lesson: The Memorial Lesson

1:00 p.m. Jeanette DePoy began with the lyrics of the song that says “I belong to this band”. It is great to be part of a group like Sacred Harp singers. She said when she started singing she thought the Memorial Lesson was sad, but now it is her favorite part of the singing. Each of us can reach out to someone who is sick or shut-in by calling, sending an email, or mailing a card. People are asked, at a singing, to put those on the list that are sick, shut-in, or deceased. Most times there is a card for the sick that everyone at the singing can sign. It is nice for those who cannot attend a singing to know that friends signed a card for them. The following names of the sick and shut-ins were read: Violet Thomason, Cathy White, Bud Oliver, Sammie Oliver, Olga Haas, Daphene Causey, S.T. Reed, Lessie Reed, Josie Hyde, and Eugene Forbes. Cassie Allen led 172.

Nathan Rees said the thing he most loved about Sacred Harp is the family and community. Nathan talked about one of the wisest men he had ever met through Sacred Harp singing. His community respected him so much that it named a highway after him. Through Sacred Harp, we meet a lot of older people we wish could be with us longer and we miss them when they are gone. The following names of the deceased were read: Lonnie Rogers-Georgia; Harrison Creel and Marie Ivey-Alabama; Diane Nelson and Robert Wert-Indiana; John Merritt-Mississippi; Alice Fahrbach-Michigan; Frank Evans-Virginia; Joan Fritz-Minnesota; Jeanne Schaffer-Colorado; James Wyllie-Pennsylvania; Ita Ryder and Mark Ferguson-Ireland; Phillip Higgins- United Kingdom. Nathan led 499 in memory of the deceased. The memorial service was closed with prayer offered by Jesse Roberts.

Karen Rollins thanked Jeannette, Cassie, Nathan, and Jesse. Karen said the Memorial Lesson is about mourning, friendship, and love. It is a quiet moment to think of those we love. It is not unusual to see tears and hear laughter during a Memorial Lesson. Leading a Memorial Lesson is something you are asked to do. People do not usually volunteer to do a Memorial Lesson. Karen states that some places are not having Memorial Lessons and believes it is a tragedy. The older one gets, the more Memorial Lessons mean. Having a Memorial is a way to honor those who taught us. We sing for those on the list. It is a time when we confront our own mortality. The lyrics have a lot to say about death, and as we think about death, we carry on the tradition of those before us. It is our family obligation. The Memorial Lesson is one of the oldest parts of a convention and no one knows when they began. Sometimes, when asked to do a Memorial Lesson, you may have only thirty minutes notice. The steps in doing a Memorial Lesson are to compile a list of the deceased and sick and shut-ins, ask someone to speak, and choose songs to sing to honor each list of people. A person may read from a book, the Bible, or simply talk. Karen thanked the class for attending, and said she hoped that Memorial Lessons continue at Sacred Harp singings.

Elective: Patriotic-Secular Songs

2:30 p.m. John Plunkett began the class by reading an excerpt about “Chester” being sung by soldiers in the Revolutionary War as they marched to battle. Aldo led 479. John read about Sumner... he loved his country more than his political party. He wrote the words and music to “Ode on Science”. Judy Caudle led 242. John told the class that “Mt. Vernon” was written on the occasion of George Washington’s death. Oliver Kindig-Stokes led 110. Philippa Stoddard led 358 (Warren Steele’s book says this tune was a march song). A hand-out was given regarding the War of 1812. Cassie Allen led 137, Sam Sommers led 148, Robert Kelley led 346, and John Plunkett and Marcus Whitman led 487. John talked about the “Star of Columbia”. The earliest known publication was in a magazine in 1784. The class sang the song, each part first, and then sang the song as written, singing all six printed verses. Jesse Roberts led “My Country Tis’ of Thee” and the class dismissed.

Lesson: Leading Boot Camp / Adults

4:00 p.m. This class was a critique class to help leaders be more comfortable in the square. Cassie began by stating that leading is not a show. There should be no dancing, stomping, or throwing your book on the floor. The class should be paying attention enough to follow. Do not beat too low or too high or you lose time. Keep your leading within a frame of modesty, which is between your shoulder and hip. If you make a mistake, smile, and keep leading! Keep your movements fluid, not choppy. Be confident and do not let the class lead your song for you. Always start and end a song with your hand up. Never sing a song so fast that you cannot sing every note. The class members picked a song to lead while teachers critiqued their leading to help them improve. Leaders: Sharon Secola 155; Eva Striebeck 142; Amy Armstrong 215; Hannah Land 434; Willis McCumber 468; Evangeline Schultz 299; Alvaro Duarte 217; Holly Hauck 68b; Shelby Castillo 196; Marcus Whitman 440; Jackson Fleder 361; Katy Kanfer 278b; Tom Stokes 186.

Lesson: Accent

4:00 p.m. Robert Kelley explained that accent is part of dynamics, and places emphasis on syllables with a swell of the voice. There is a primary accent and a secondary accent. Unaccented syllables should be very quiet. There are two ways to beat time: down and up or down, down, up. The class looked at 313b for 2/2 accent. For 3/4 accent, the class looked at 501. Primary accent happens when your hand is starting down. Secondary accent happens when your hand is starting up. Robert suggested 109 as a good song to practice accent. The class referred to 119 for compound time accent. Robert directed the class to page 224 for discussion about music accent versus poetry accent.

Elective: Rudiments-Review / Q&A

5:00 p.m. Nathan Rees led the discussion and review in this class. Campers discussed why they enjoy singing Sacred Harp songs.

Question: What can a singer do to better observe the full time prescribed for rests? Answer: Count silently the beats of the rest or when appropriate, ask the class to pay attention to the rests before starting the song.

Question: What can a singer to do properly keep 4/4 time arm motions? Answer: The first quarter beat is down, second quarter beat is down, the third quarter beat is up, and the fourth quarter beat is up. Realize that the first quarter beat does not end at the bottom of the down beat. Do not confuse arm motion with accent.

Question: How should we beat a fermata (bird’s eye)? Answer: With a slow motion of the hand or use the palm of your hand to help indicate when to hold. Nathan encouraged new singers to observe and sit by experienced singers. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Sacred Harp Tunes Borrowings and Parodies

5:00 p.m. Aldo Ceresa brought the class to order leading 440 and 441. Aldo stated that these two songs are related. Song 441 is a major version of 440, which was written fifty years earlier. This sort of borrowing or reworking was the focus of this lesson. Some songs are arrangements of old folk songs and other types of songs. Intentionally or otherwise, composers borrowed from others in the Sacred Harp. The class was provided packets with examples of songs and information on borrowed tunes. Aldo led 517 and commented that it resembled 441, especially in the fuging entrance. Was this intentional? We will have to ask Hugh McGraw. This practice spans a long period of time, including early New England music, such as 195 and 280. The song “Land of Rest” on page 484 in the 1960 Sacred Harp is a B flat minor version of the B flat major of 280. Bethany Towne led 428 and Phillipa Stoddard led 542. Aldo notes the entrance of 542 recalls 428, though the melody is quite different. A.M. Cagle invented something very different, but incorporated an old form. In Cagle’s early version manuscript at Pitts Theology Library at Emory in Atlanta, Cagle originally used the words in 428. Aldo led “Prodigal” from the supplement to the Kentucky Harmony, an arrangement of an English hunting song that was arranged into a fuging tune (196, Southern Harmony) fifteen years later. Aldo led “Malabar (1803, Samuel Holyoke). Aldo stated that early fuging tunes in the Sacred Harp (1840-1850) were mostly exercises in reworking New England fuging tunes. Later on, new southern fuging tunes were written. “Malabor” was only slightly rearranged and improved by D.P. White, titled “Norwich” (362). Aldo led “Washington” (1778, William Billings). B. F. White added the high treble notes to this song and removed the alto, creating “Bear Creek” (269). The alto by G.G. Daniell was added in 1921. Aldo led “Turner” by Abraham Maxim. Ogletree somewhat reworked the melody and completely rearranged the harmony parts. The class sang 371. Aldo turned to modern arrangements and noted 528 arranged by A. A. Blocker from “Grafton”, an old New England song, which appears in the Cooper Book. Aldo led “Hermon” from the Social Harp, a major of 142 by John G. McCurry, noting it was well executed like 441. Other attempts were not so successful, such as “The Love of God” a major version of 378 (t? b?) in the 1960 Sacred Harp. The class sang “Seaborn” from the 1960 Sacred Harp, an arrangement in minor of 434. The class sang “Love” from the Union Harp and James Book (1936 revision). This song’s melody is based on the treble and the tenor of 101t (SH). Jesse Karlsberg led the first five measures of “Christian Prospect” in the Christian Harmony. H. A. Parris took the bass, tenor, and treble order, and wrote the song in C with a new alto. In 1964, O. A. Parris and his nephews took the alto and reworked it for the Christian Harmony. Deidra Montgomery led 196 and 481. Dan Brittain says he was not thinking of 196 at the time he wrote 481, but acknowledges that it may have been an influence. Aldo noted that several Cooper Book songs borrowed very heavily from songs just recently added to the Sacred Harp. Aldo invited anyone to contact him with other examples of borrowing. The class concluded singing 318.

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. led by Youth Boys. The boys opened the singing with a special song. Tom Stokes led 105, followed by the opening prayer.

Leaders: Holly Mixon and Anna Bowen 182; Alberta Hardy and Elinore Hardy 499; Cassie Allen, Evangeline Schultz, and Elizabeth Schultz 299; Susan Harcrow, Jackson Harcrow, and Andrea 401; Beth Anne Clay and Anna Grace Sipe 542; Jedidiah Schultz and Jarius Schultz 275b; Eva Striebeck and Ellen Lueck 430; Scott Ivey and Dinah East 61; Micah Rodgers and Jesse Rodgers 144; Jessa Cherones and Dylenn Nelson 25; Rebekah Gilmore and Christopher Mann 312t; Bethany Towne and Hannah Land 399t; Jo Pendleton, Sharon Secola, and Jonathon Pendleton 246 (?); Deidra Montgomery and Lauren Bock 431; Jennifer Betz and Cheyenne Ivey 432; Eimear O’Donovan and Aldo Ceresa 376; Robert Kelly and Nathan Rees 82b; Jesse Karlsberg, Stuart Ivey, and Jonathon Smith 351; Guy Banks and Jackson Fleder 424; Sam Sommers, Carol Mosely 180; Katy Kanfer and J.R. Hardman 473; Lela Crowder and Rachel Rudi 328; Lorrie Wacaster and Katy Wacaster 203; Ailee Martin and Ashton Rodgers 159; Benedicta Hardy and Ethan Hardy 107; Willis McCumber and Nathan Berry 28t; Amy Armstrong and Anita Landess 209; Philippa Stoddard and Holly Hauck 517; Dennis George, Tom George, and Rodney Ivey 134.

The Chairman led 521 as the closing song. The devotional was led by Ethan Corbett, followed by closing prayer.

Thursday, July 5

Lesson: Rudiments III / Youth I / Basics

9:00 a.m. The class began by returning to melodics with teachers Lauren Bock and Jesse P. Karlsberg demonstrating the minor scale. The class learned the relationship between the major and minor scales and reviewed the octave. Lauren led the class in singing the minor scale, and Jesse led the class in an exercise where students holding shape notes stood in a row according to height and had to pass the notes back and forth to put the scale in order.

After a stretch break, the class returned to rhythmics, and did an exercise comparing the durations of different notes. They practiced combining notes and rests of different durations to fill a measure of 4/4 time. The class then picked up where it had left off the previous day, reviewing the modes of time, and focusing on how to lead a song in each mode. The students engaged in leading practice for the remainder of the class.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Youth II / Basics

9:00 a.m. Stuart Ivey began the class by doing a human scale activity. Class members arranged themselves according to height and then traded enlarged notes on paper until they were in the correct order of the major scale, followed by singing the scale. The newer singers were randomly selected to arrange themselves in the same way, but in the correct order of the minor scale. The class learned that it was harder to hear the minor scale than the major scale. Stuart had the class look at 28b, stating that all of the notes in the major scale are in the song. The class sang 36t and 222. Stuart told the class that knowing the scale enables you to sing songs easier.

Blake Sisemore reviewed pg. 13 of the Rudiments describing notes and rests. A rest is a period of silence. There should be no foot tapping during a rest and the class should not hold the note before a rest. Blake reviewed 134, noting that it ran the notes of the scale as in 28b, and it also has a large range in the tenor part. The class sang 43 for an example of changes in modes of time. The class sang the tenor line of 43, 153, and 329. Stuart referred to 153, noting that when the time changes, the accent changes, too, and discussed primary and secondary accent. The class looked at 64 in 6/8 time with a quick upbeat at the first note and practiced the tricky beginning of the song. Stuart and Blake had the class go to pg. 19 of the Rudiments and reviewed intervals in the major and minor scales and sang the exercises. The class moved on to pg. 21, Chapter VIII of the Rudiments explaining what harmony is, and talked about what polyphonic is in Section 5. Sacred Harp is polyphonic...many voices that are equally important. Stuart talked about the pentatonic scale and looked at 59 as an example. The homework for the class was to look for songs that have a pentatonic scale. Class was dismissed.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. Sam Sommers opened the class leading 32t, followed by prayer. This class reviewed what they had learned at camp and discussed their observations from the evening singings. The class reviewed the modes of time, proper beating of time within the frame of modesty, and accent. Sam spoke of Sacred Harp music being living music that should have a pulse, and that is what accent does in a song. There is usually one primary accent in each measure. The class members are reminded to know their plans when they begin to lead, such as verses and repeats. Sam demonstrated communication to the class when you want to do a repeat. Every song has a beginning, middle, and end. “Da capo” (D.C.) means to repeat back to the beginning of the song. “Dal Segno” (D.S.) means to repeat back to the sign. There is only one song in the book that has D.S. and “the sign”, 438. Sam used this song to explain the fermata or bird’s eye, and called special attention to accent. The fermata is held at the reasonable discretion of the leader, so watch the leader. Do not keep beating time during a fermata; this may be contrary to what one may see other leaders do at a singing. The class reviewed the characteristics of 29t and sang it as written. Sam led 177, paying special attention to the marked dynamics. Dynamics are not marked on every song, but should still be sung. The class sang 176t and was dismissed.

Elective: More Readings on Some Sacred Harp Characters

10:30 a.m. This class included more reminiscences from Buell Cobb’s forty-seven year singing experience of a few notable Sacred Harp figures, including several born in the latter part of the 19th century. Mr. Cobb shared that he came to Sacred Harp in the mid-sixties around central Alabama. He met several legendary Sacred Harp singers.

Lesson: Odes and Anthems

1:00 p.m. The class was provided a handout listing the twenty-one Odes and Anthems in the Sacred Harp. David Ivey opened the class by leading 512. David referred to page 23 of the Rudiments for definitions of odes and anthems. Leaders: Nathan Rees 225b; Scott Ivey 227; Alvaro Duarte 232; Rebekah Gilmore 240; Tommy Schultz 245; Beth Anne Clay 268; Deidre Montgomery 355; Marcus Whitman and Robert Kelley 507; Eimear O’Donovan and Hannah Land 553; Sam Sommers 524; Aldo Ceresa 260; Tom George 234. Class dismissed.

Lesson: Learning Songs / Youth / Basics

1:00 p.m. Jesse P. Karlsberg and Blake Sisemore conducted this class. Leaders: Holly Mixon 196; Eli Hinton and Jonathon Pendleton 268; Connor Campbell 535; Elizabeth Betz 378t; Russ Pope 250; River Skrenes 52t; Jennifer Betz, Robin Betz, and Matthew Betz 146; William Clay 282; Ethan Corbett 213b; Phillip Denney and Wyatt Denney 147t.

Elective: Thoughts on Sacred Harp Etiquette

2:30 p.m. Buell Cobb, a longtime observer of Sacred Harp practices, shared thoughts on what to do and what not to do, and how to be effective and appreciated in singing, leading, and arranging at singings. Buell began by quoting Dewey P. Williams, “If you only know rudiments, you knows very little”. Earlier members of conventions might be fined or even expelled for behavior considered inappropriate; however, it was in many convention by-laws to remain open in regard to these things. Keep the sloganeering outside, and avoid subjects that may divide us. The Memorial Lesson should be limited to lovers and singers of Sacred Harp. Songs should be sung as they are written, without making outrageous adjustments. There are two types of leaders that are easy for the front bench: the confident ones and those who are deathly afraid. Buell led 425, adding an additional verse to demonstrate that the class was compliant and wanted to please the leader. Buell read a selection from the Chicago Newsletter “Dear Miss Grace Notes” column: “The leader must balance his desires with the class’s desire or ability. Seasoning is important.” On singing verses other than the first one, Buell said that it does not bother him. If you are giving to the class as you should, they will indulge you. On how flamboyant should you be when you lead, try to stay in the example of leaders you respect. On bringing in parts, you must let the front bench or other entering parts know what you are doing, but it is not necessary to bring in all the parts. On singing entrances with the parts, tradition does not tell us specifically; however, it is necessary to communicate. As you sit in the class, watch the leader! On arranging, the worst is to just go down the bench or through a family. Space out family members, etc., throughout the day. Bring back the class with the chairman, local singers, or those who have already led. Buell said we often break the rules we learned in singing school.

Team Tunesmith

4:00 p.m. Aldo Ceresa introduced the singers to the class format. Those present would sing each of the 15 completed Team Tunesmith group composition exercises. Aldo complimented the class on a one hundred percent completion. After each exercise, the class gave comments. Members of the class led songs they had written. Aldo Ceresa “Englewood”; Jesse Karlsberg “Akerman”; Ethan Hardy “Remordancy”; Drew Smith “Findley”; Tom George “Dauphin Island”. Aldo thanked the class for their participation and dismissed the class.

Community Singing

7:00 p.m. led by Young Adults. David Ivey started the evening by recognizing Camp Lee employees with Certificates of Appreciation. The Young Adults sang a new medley by Robert Kelley called “Streams of Mercy”.

J.R. Hardman and Willis McCumber began the singing by leading 346. Marcus Whitman offered the opening prayer. Leaders: Katy Kanfer, Eimear O’Donovan, and Amy Armstrong 35; Andrea Kemp and Sharon Secola 119; Drew Smith, Jedidiah Shultz, and Jairus Shultz 277; Idy Kiser and Reed Schilbach 479; Nate Green and Norma Green 378 (t? b?); Erica Hinton, Matt Hinton, Eli Hinton, and Anna Hinton 472; Jubal Schultz and Justin Corbett 496; Ethan Corbett, Ethan Hardy, and Ethan Schultz 551; Nathan Rees and Nathan Berry 280; Alberta Hardy, Elinore Hardy, and Benedicta Hardy 159; Russ Pope and Vella Daily 358; Elizabeth Betz, Robin Betz, Matthew Betz, and Jennifer Betz 494; Eva Striebeck and Ellen Lueck 384; Christopher Mann, Nicholas Mann, Benjamin Mann, Beth Anne Clay, Ailee Martin, Lainey Martin, and Anna Grace Sipe 178; Lilly Underwood and Anna Marie Bethune 59; Guy Banks, Jackson Fleder, and Jason Steidl 58; Phillipa Stoddard, Anna Bowen, and Katy Wacaster 146; Liz Kiser, Cassie Allen, and Shelby Castillo 217; Blake Sisemore and Terry Wootten 76b; Jeannette DePoy and Holly Mixon 182; Tom George, Dinah East, and Tony Kiser 224; Micah Rodgers and Paula Oliver 142; Cheyenne Ivey, Serenity Manning, and Rebekah Gilmore 300; Daphene Causey, Reba Windom, and Sharon DuPriest 269. An adaptation of “Loving Jesus” called “Loving Camp Lee” (adapted and written by Lauren Bock and Drew Smith) was sung by campers.

RECESS

The class was called back to order by J.R. Hardman and Willis McCumber leading 324. Camp Lee employees presented a plaque to Camp Fasola. Jeff Sheppard received the plaque and expressed his appreciation. Leaders: Alvaro Witt Duarte, River Skrenes, and Connor Campbell 124; Philip Gilmore, Paula Gilmore, and Rebekah Gilmore 311; Lori Rodgers and Ashton Rodgers 112; William Schnorenberg, William Clay, and Konrad Tegtmeier 282; Dylenn Nelson and Jessa Cherones 299; Sonya Sipe, Cindy Mann, and Jennifer Clay 36b; Scott Ivey and Scott DePoy 201; Evangeline Schultz, Bethany Towne, and Elizabeth Schultz 30t; Tommy Schultz, Donna Schultz, and Marcus Strickland 56b; Bridgett Kennedy and Angela Myers 377; Eugene Forbes and Richard Mauldin 168; Ariella Perry, Lela Crowder, and Jonathan Pendleton 430; Deidra Montgomery, Rachel Rudi, and Hannah Land 319; John Kelso, Daniel Bass, and Eimear O’Donovan 81t; Samuel Sommers and Buell Cobb 386; Aldo Ceresa, Jonathon Smith, and Robert Kelley 558; Jesse P. Karlsberg, Lauren Bock, Tom Stokes, Henry Johnson, and Oliver Stokes 539; Carol Munro Mosley, Jill Coyne, and Jo Pendleton 566; Cornelia Tegtmeier, Anita Landess, and Holly Hauck 535; Susan Cherones and Marilyn Bradley 107; Jeffrey Wootten, Susan Harcrow, and Jackson Harcrow 383; David Ivey, Karen Ivey, and Stuart Ivey 131t; Pam Nunn, Ruby Cates Nunn, Rodney Ivey, and Judy Caudle 189. J.R. Hardman and Willis McCumber led 56t as the closing song. Marcus Whitman offered the closing prayer.

Friday, July 6

Campers took the parting hand and said goodbyes in the Ark at 9:00 a.m. following breakfast.

SHMHA President—Jeff Sheppard; Camp Fasola Director—David Ivey