Minutes of Sacred Harp Singings

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Camp Fasola 2009 (Session II)

Camp Lee, Anniston, Alabama

June 29-July 2, 2009

Monday, June 29

Following registration and dinner at the Grove Dining Hall, the class was called to order by Karen Ivey and Stuart Ivey leading 37b. The opening prayer was offered by Blake Sisemore.

Leaders: Drew Smith, Blake Sisemore, Joel Jenkins, Rodney Ivey, Brian Maxwell, and Jackson Harcrow 385b; Sarah Jenkins, Lauren Bock, Jordan-Leigh Taylor, Joanna Lampert, Lela Crowder, and Ariella Perry 176b; David Ivey, Jeff Sheppard, Pam Nunn, Karen Ivey, and Judy Caudle 556; Brittany Tanedo, Brian Tanedo, and Blake Tanedo 146; Adrian Eldridge, Virginia Eldridge, Rebecca Eldridge, Kathryn Eldridge, and James Eldridge 187; Shelby Castillo, James Castillo, Joseph Castillo, and Katrina Rosser 186; Cheyenne Ivey, Paige Gilbert, and Avalea Maxwell 101t; Lauren Hall, Rachel Shavers, Alex Makris, and Amaleah Perry 142; Andrew Kiser, Caleb Kiser, Liz Kiser, and Tony Kiser 277; Ashton Rodgers, Corbin Rodgers, Lori Rodgers, Micah Rodgers, Janet Morgan, Donna Sewell, and Stephen Dalton 107; B.J. Schnorenberg, Tom George, and Bentley McGuire 112; Kelsey Sunderland, Allison Schofield, Jennie Brown, and Deidra Montgomery 426b; Alex Craig, Zach Craig, Serenity Manning, Isaac Maxwell, and Avalea Maxwell 97; Sonya Sipe, Garrett Sipe, Anna Grace Sipe, Beth Anne Clay, and Ailee Martin 63; Rachel Allred, Caleb Allred, and Jennifer Lee 192; Philip Gilmore, Grace Gilmore, Rebekah Gilmore, and Anna Jewell Gilmore 270; Robert Kelly, Scott Ivey, Jo Pendleton, and Jonathan Pendleton 182; Scott DePoy, Jeannette DePoy, and Holly Mixon 99; Paula Oliver, Maggie Cox, and Brianna Meek 480; Jonathon Smith, Justin Levi, Aldo Ceresa, and Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg 214; Ruth Wampler, Oliver Kindig-Stokes, and Daniel Hunter 215; Guy Bankes, Anna Bowen, Heidi Bowen, Sara Bowen, Ina Shea, and Rebecca Schissler 475; Sheila Nugent, James Nugent, Fiona Nugent, and Declan Nugent 224; Peter Irvine, Anna Maria Irvine, Alexandra Irvine, Julian Damashek, and Mary Gowins 217.

The devotional was conducted by Joel Jenkins. He read from I Chronicles and made remarks about praising God. He also read from Psalms... “make a joyful noise unto the Lord...” He offered prayer, and the class was dismissed.

Tuesday, June 30

Lesson: Rudiments 1 / Youth I—Basics

9:00 a.m. The Ark—Teachers: Tom Malone and Judy Caudle Judy Caudle and Tom Malone introduced themselves, and led 46. Tom asked the class if the song was in major or minor key. He indicated that this can be determined by looking at the last note of the bass: a “fa” indicates major, and a “la” is minor.

The four shape notes were introduced and reviewed using the major scale. Harmony and discord were introduced by singing the scale in thirds in groups of boys and girls. Everything covered so far had to do with tune (melodics). Judy began introducing time (rhythmics) by discussing the three types of time: common, triple, and compound. Tom reviewed the modes of time and wrapped up the session on time by playing a game of “Finish My Sentence”.

Lesson: Rudiments 1 / Youth II-Intermediate

9:00 a.m. Genesis—Teacher: Richard DeLong

Lesson: Rudiments 1 / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Samuel Sommers Samuel Sommers began the class by welcoming everyone and offering prayer. Sam remarked that singing Sacred Harp expresses a desire to sing correctly by following the traditions for the greater joy of God, for ourselves, and for our community. He reviewed the shapes and the scale, emphasizing chords and explaining fourths, fifths, dominant, sub-dominant, and intervals.

He then moved on to explain tempo as a pulse for music. He reviewed the modes of time (referring to rudiments page 15, sections 11-15).

Sam reviewed rests (rudiments page 15, section 8), stating that rests are periods of silence. A breach in silence would include singing, talking, and audible foot patting. Rests have the same lengths as corresponding notes. He used songs 66 and 67 as examples. Sam also covered other aspects of time keeping including double endings, D.C., D.S., and fine.

In closing, Sam gave the class a preview of Wednesday’s lesson (melodics). The class was dismissed.

10:15 a.m.—Snacks 10:30 a.m.—Recreation and Crafts with Liz Kiser 12:00 p.m.—Lunch Lesson: The Kitchens Family—“A Life of Faithful Service” 1:00 p.m. The Ark—Teacher: Tom Malone Tom Malone and Allison Schofield led 279 to bring the class to order. Tom introduced the special guests for the lesson, Joy Jenkins (daughter of Elmer Kitchens), Heather Green and April Green (great-granddaughters of Elmer Kitchens), Marlin Beasley (friend of Elmer Kitchens), and Sandra Wilkinson (friend of Elmer Kitchens).

James Elmer Kitchens was born on June 16, 1912, near Jasper, Alabama. He died June 13, 1979 and was buried at Gray Cemetery near Parrish, Alabama. He was a fifth generation Primitive Baptist minister. He was a Sacred Harp singer, writer/composer/teacher of Sacred Harp music. He served as President of the Sacred Harp Publishing Company from 1966—1979, and was instrumental in revising “The Sacred Harp, 1971 Revision”.

Marlin Beasley told of meeting Elmer Kitchens in 1955. Marlin shared humorous stories of Elder Kitchens. He said that “Exit” (pg. 181) was one of Elmer’s favorites to lead.

Sandra Wilkinson told of going to her first singing school in 1962. Elder Kitchens had been asked to teach a 10 day singing school out of the White Book at Hardeman Church in Decatur, Georgia. Sandra said because of her interest in singing, Elder Kitchens took her under his wing and paid her a lot of attention. He asked Sandra to write the words to a song the class had written. Together, they composed the words and music to “Hardeman”. The song was dedicated to Sandra’s grandfather. Sandra led the class in singing “Hardeman”.

Joy Jenkins thanked the class for this special session. Joy and Tom led 358 (her favorite song). Joy and Sandra Wilkinson led 568. Marlin Beasley led 512, and the class was dismissed.

Lesson: Learning Songs / Youth—Basics

1:00 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Stuart Ivey Stuart brought the class to order and stated that when learning songs, one should choose “easy” songs, what he calls toothpick songs. These are tunes that have comfortable speed / meter; not too many notes, comfortable range; familiarity; are not too long (one page or less); and no fuging tunes. Scott Ivey led 56t.

Stuart provided the class with good steps to use to learn a song: know the tenor; lead a song to learn it; know the words; know any extra things about the song, such as repeats, time changes, rests, and bird’s eye.

Stuart led 36b, 48t, 81t, 100. He used 100 as an example of syncopation (the shift of accent from one note to another), citing the “Scottish Snap”.

2:30 p.m.—Recreation

Elective: Keying Music

2:30 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Richard DeLong Richard called the class to order by leading 81t. He talked of determining if a song is major or minor by looking at the last note in the bass line as the first step in keying a song. The second thing to do is develop nerves of steel. Third is to listen to experienced keyers, and fourth, practice, practice, practice.

Mr. Lonnie Rogers came by and addressed the class. Richard led 389 in honor of Mr. Lonnie.

Richard talked about tunes that could be keyed too high or too low very easily, and tunes that should be keyed higher or lower than marked in order for the class to sing comfortably. He led 155, 546, 285t, 45t, 162, and 36b.

The class was dismissed.

Elective: Arranging Committee

2:30 p.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Linton Ballinger Linton Ballinger and his wife, Ethelene, presented a class on the considerations of an arranging committee. Linton showed the class a pocket watch, and stated that it was an important implement of arranging committees of the past. In earlier singings (50 years ago or so) leaders were called to lead for a set amount of time, say 10 or 15 minutes. He circulated a 1938 copy of the minutes kept at the Fayette County Convention to illustrate the time allocation tradition.

3:45 p.m.—Snacks

Leading Boot Camp / Intermediate

4:00 p.m. The Ark—Teachers: Shelbie Sheppard and Jeff Sheppard Jeff Sheppard brought the class to order by leading 176t. Shelbie gave suggestions for leading well: good leaders clearly define the tempo and bring in parts. Good leaders do not expend excess energy by waving their arms around unnecessarily, or bouncing while in the square. A good way to practice leading skills is in front of a full length mirror. Pay attention to your manner of dress as it should be appropriate for church services or similar services. Students volunteered to lead, one by one, while Shelbie gave them constructive criticism.

Lesson: Leading / Youth Basics

4:00 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Richard DeLong Richard called the class together and appointed Drew Smith to key and emphasized that everyone should try to lead.

Richard instructed the class to “watch the leader!” He also stated that the leader should announce to the class what it should expect, such as the number of repeats and the number of verses.

Richard instructed the class to look toward the bass singers, or give them a nod, to let them know to repeat a fugue. Also, he encouraged new leaders to have a backup song or two ready in case someone else leads their first choice.

Lesson: Accent for the New Singer

4:00 p.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Tom Malone Tom Malone covered the modes of time in Sacred Harp, referring to pages 15 and 16 in the rudiments section. He illustrated that the down beat falls heavier than the upbeat. He and the class practiced beating time in all modes of time used in the Sacred Harp. He covered the primary and secondary accents, relating to degrees of power and unequal emphasis. He used songs on pages 49t and 82t as examples. He went on to discuss two cases that will change accent in the Sacred Harp. If the accent of the poetry differs from the accent of the music, for that instance, the degree of accent would change. Another example of change in accent would be syncopation (rudiments page 17, section 20). He further stated that full primary accent is like a “push”.

5:00 p.m.—Recreation

Elective: The Alto Part

5:00 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Cassie Allen Cassie began the class by telling the history of the alto part and stating that most early Sacred Harp music did not include the alto. Earlier editions had the alto written in C clef, but now most all alto parts are written in G clef. S.M. Denson and J.S. James added alto parts to the 1911 edition as it served to modernize the music and add a closer harmony of the parts.

Cassie led the class in singing 58. She talked of the range of an alto voice, usually an E tone to a B or C tone. The alto part is written for women with a lower voice.

Cassie led 163b, a song that originally had an alto part. For minor music, the alto part usually starts on the tonic and ends on the tonic, rarely ending on the 3rd. She led 506 as an example of a song ending on the minor 3rd.

She led 36b to have the class practice finding their pitch. She led 37b and pointed out the choice notes the alto part sings. She had the class practice singing different choice notes, and encouraged altos to swap to opposite notes to change the sound. This gives the alto part more fullness.

Cassie stated that altos get a lot of sharps and flats. She led 454 to show flats and naturals, and discusses how the tones change with sharps and flats. She led 168 to show a song with sharps. She also stated that altos usually sing the bass part in three part songs and led 70b as an example.

Cassie asked the altos why they sing that part. Most answered that the part was comfortable. She encouraged them to blend their voices, giving a natural sound, and adding fullness to the tune (re: page 21 Rudiments/Mechanics). She led 480 to emphasize the alto part and to show how the alto part can “make a song”.

Elective: The Bass Part

5:00 p.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Ed Thacker Ed Thacker, a bass singer, instructed the class on singing the bass part. He talked about the bass clef (rudiments pg. 17; Melodics, section 3). He explained the tonic and figuring out the first note of the bass part from the pitch given. He said to let the key person sound the whole chord.

Ed explained double endings, pointing out the art of singing to the first ending, then returning straight into a repeat. He used 474 and 475 as examples. The class practiced on songs 192, 318, 383, and 220.

6:00 p.m.—Dinner

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. The Ark—Led by Youth Boys The class was called to order by Andrew Kiser leading 32t. The evening prayer was offered by Blake Sisemore.

Leaders: Tom George 82t; James Eldridge and Isaac Maxwell 35; Nick Kinsey, Callie Garnett, Jean Garnett, and Anna Hendrick 384; Sarah Jenkins, Katherine Eldridge, Avalea Maxwell, Holly Mixon, and Ailee Martin 274t; Joanna Lampert, Ashton Rodgers, Paige Gilbert, Grace Gilmore, and Dorothy Nelson 117; Jordan-Leigh Taylor, Beth Anne Clay, Rebecca Eldridge, Cheyenne Ivey, and Brianna Meek 324; Ariella Perry, Maggie Cox, Paula Oliver, Micah Rodgers, and Katrina Rosser 196; Lauren Bock, Alex Craig, Serenity Manning, Shelby Castillo, and Rebekah Gilmore 186; Lela Crowder, Rachel Shavers, Rachel Allred, Alex Makris, and Brittany Tanedo 430; David Ivey and Karen Ivey 472; Samuel Sommers and Aldo Ceresa 141; Allison Schofield and Jennifer Mosteller 112; Joyce Walton and Rodney Ivey 439; Ruth Wampler and Ricky Harcrow 401; Tom Malone and Jesse Karlsberg 492; Adrian Eldridge and Virginia Eldridge 111b; Cassie Allen and Liz Kiser 432; Michael Mosley and Carol Munro-Mosley 474; Darrell Swarens and Bob Meek 198; Drew Sellers and Timothy Morton 178; Lucy O’Leary and Zachary Marcus 340; Jeff Sheppard and Shelbie Sheppard 327; Laura Dempsey and Lynne Wilson 523; Justin Levi and Julian Damashek 500; Donna Bell, Lori Rodgers, and Janet Morgan 142; Gene Forbes and Jackson Harcrow 155.

Andrew Kiser led 101t as the closing song. Caleb Allred offered prayer, and the class was dismissed to assemble at the campfire for devotional.

The campfire devotional was conducted by Ethan Corbett. He read the first chapter of Genesis.

Wednesday, July 1

Lesson: Rudiments II / Youth I—Basics

9:00 a.m. The Ark—Teachers: Tom Malone and Judy Caudle Basic rudiments and review continued.

Lesson: Rudiments II / Youth II—Intermediate

9:00 a.m. Genesis—Teacher: Cassie Allen Cassie began the lesson by reviewing The Rudiments, page 20, chapter 6, Mechanics of Singing. The class practiced major and minor scales for warm-up. She talked of keys of convenience, and noted that any key, whether absolute or not, must cover the steps and half steps within the scale.

Cassie led 36b, 138t, and 155, concentrating on accent. She then reviewed notes and rests (whole, half, quarter, eighth, and sixteenth) and led 28b and 98.

Cassie instructed the class on the modes of time (Rudiments, pg. 15 and 16) and repeat marks (pg. 14).

Lesson: Rudiments II / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Samuel Sommers Samuel Sommers opened the class by offering prayer, with a special request for Shelbie Sheppard, who was injured in a fall earlier in the day.

Sam began his presentation by stating that rudiments are like 3rd grade math, one must have a good grounding in rudiments to sound good. He covered rhythmics (pretty notes are bad at the wrong time); good habits (look at the book and sing what is written); clefs (referred to the alto clef as a “dark mystery”, and reviewed bass and treble clefs). The class practiced the scale and intervals. Sam pointed out that the sound of a note is more important than the name of the note. He reviewed “keys of convenience” and repeats.

Sam addressed a myth about singing as loud as possible. He said the myth “if you can hear your neighbor, you’re not singing loud enough” was rubbish. He encouraged students to sing with a full, strong voice and not to be afraid to sing out! He moved on to leading songs, stressing the need to have a skeleton style and add “curlicues” later. Sam talked about a frame for keeping time (eye level to belt); the use of modest upward and downward strokes (no pitching a softball); the use of economy of motion (smaller strokes for faster songs). He reviewed the modes of time (rudiments pg. 15 and 16).

Sam addressed a question on pitching decorum. His thoughts were as follows: to pitch your own song if you want; have someone else pitch your song, even if not the designated keyer; don’t ask for a new pitch if it is not your song. The class was dismissed.

10:15 a.m.—Snacks 10:30 a.m.—Recreation and Crafts with Liz Kiser

Elective: Sacred Harp Composition

10:30 a.m. Genesis—Teacher: Aldo Ceresa Aldo introduced himself and stated that he is self taught, learning mostly from the Sacred Harp book.

Since the late 1700’s, someone has been writing Sacred Harp music. It is essential to the book’s success. Aldo cited periods of great activity: 1840’s, 1850’s, and 1860’s, early 1900’s, 1930’s, 1950’s, coinciding with revisions. The music is different from period to period, but evolves with no radical shifts. Singers will only sing your music if in the “style” of the Sacred Harp. People must like it and recognize it.

Sacred Harp music has lots of patterns. Study the book to learn those patterns. Aldo handed out charts of major and minor chords, showing most common to least common, rarely used chords, and generally avoided chords. Matt Hinton shared comments with the class stating that page 501 was written as an exercise to learn the bass part. He also shared that Mr. Raymond Hamrick says that Sacred Harp composers think “horizontally” while others think “vertically”. The class was dismissed.

Elective: Dinner on the Ground

10:30 a.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Pam Nunn Pam Nunn conducted the Dinner on the Grounds class in the absence of Shelbie Sheppard. The class made two recipes to be shared with all campers at dinner. Pam’s Chocolate Surprise is a dessert made with chocolate cookies, chocolate cake, chocolate pudding, chocolate covered peanuts, granola, and Cool Whip. Banana Split Cake is made with vanilla cookies, vanilla pudding, vanilla pound cake, pineapple chunks, sliced bananas, and Cool Whip, topped off with Maraschino cherries.

Pam addressed the issue of dinner etiquette by saying that if you are from the area, always take food to the singing, especially your home church/singing. If you know an area is hurting for food on singing day, take a dish or two, or take drinks, cups, etc. or make a donation. The class and Camp Lee kitchen staff got to taste test Pam’s Chocolate Surprise and Banana Split Cake before dismissal. Yum!! 12:00 p.m.—Lunch

Lesson: William Walker 200th Birthday Commemoration

1:00 p.m. The Ark—Teacher: Jonathon Smith The class was brought to order by Zachary Marcus leading 146. Jonathon Smith introduced himself and welcomed everyone. He passed around copies of a pamphlet about William Walker.

William Walker was born on the Tyger River near Martin’s Mill, three miles from the village of Cross Keys in Union County, South Carolina on May 6, 1809. He was a singer/composer/compiler of sacred music and was involved in the publication of at least four shape note tune books: The Southern Harmony (1835), Southern and Western Pocket Harmonist (1846—intended as a supplement to the Southern Harmony), The Christian Harmony (1867—switching from 4 shapes to 7 shapes), Fruits and Flowers (1873—a book for common schools and Sunday schools including sacred and secular tunes). He died in 1875 and was buried in Magnolia Cemetery near downtown Spartanburg, South Carolina.

Jonathon continued explaining the history of William Walker and the publications of different books containing his music. He led “Solemn Call” from the Christian Harmony. Jane Spencer read an excerpt from “Fruits and Flowers” (a book published for children). Jonathan and Jane led “Busy Bee”.

Lesson: Learning Songs / Youth—Basics

1:00 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Stuart Ivey Stuart began the class by singing the scale. He pointed out that the 1st, 3rd, and 5th notes of the major scale, when sung together, are called an arpeggio.

He asked the class who had done their homework on tough songs? Grace Gilmore volunteered and led 282.

He talked about what makes a song comfortable. Being familiar with a song makes it easier to sing and more comfortable to lead. Also, a steady, even tempo, comfortable voice range, simple melody, form (the way it’s written, time signature, etc.), and length (one page or less) determines the degree of difficulty in a song. He instructed the class that they should look for “extras” in songs such as birds eye (fermata), accidentals (flats and sharps), D.C. (Da Capo, “the head”, return to the beginning), D.S. (Dal Segno, return to the sign), rests, and triplets.

The class worked on some songs by practicing hard measures at a slow speed. Holly Mixon led 222. Ailee Martin led 354b. Maggie Cox led 409. Using the song on page 513; Stuart discussed how to learn different parts to help a person know their song better. He assigned everyone homework of selecting two songs to lead, and dismissed the class.

2:30—Recreation

Elective: Theology Thoughts

2:30 p.m. The Ark—Teacher: Matt Hinton Matt Hinton began his remarks by welcoming everyone. He talked about some of the lyrics of the tunes in the Sacred Harp, explaining the meaning and citing the origins of those lyrics. He stated that most of the songs in The Sacred Harp are either about free grace or are founded on the position of free grace. He led 31t, 81t, 401, and 365 during the discussion with the class.

Elective: Keying Music

2:30 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: David Ivey David opened the class by referring to the rudiments, pg. 17. Sacred Harp music should be pitched so that all singers can reach their parts comfortably. He spoke of “keys of convenience”. He stated that the keys given in the book offer guidance on where to pitch a song, and offer good general guidelines with some exceptions. Listening is important in learning to pitch. It can be instructive to listen to how other people key songs and by listening to recordings.

David instructed Julian Damashek in keying and leading 331. He said to scan the song and notice the range. Relate the key to another song you know in the same key.

David called attention to the song on page 57. It is an unusual chord for the start of a song. He also noted that the starting note in the tenor (F) in 163b is hard to find at 2:30 on a Sunday afternoon if the class does not help with sounding the chord. Daniel Hunter keyed 312t, which is written in a key that is too low for singing comfortably. Deidra Montgomery keyed 414, which has a high treble part. The class continued to practice keying songs until the class was dismissed.

3:45—Snacks

Lesson: Leading Basics—Youth I

4:00 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Stuart Ivey Stuart began the lesson by leading 66, and everyone sang the tenor part. Leaders should know their song number and be ready when their name is called. Approach the square with confidence and call the number loud enough to be heard. Barrett Patton led 424.

Stuart led 148, a song written in 2/4 time with singing beginning on the down beat. He instructed the class to practice letting the class know you are about to begin singing by utilizing a prep beat with your hand. He went on to tell the class to stand comfortably in the square, but be able to move if it is a fuging tune, and you want to bring in the parts. The class practiced this and sung 546 and 454.

Lesson: Leading Boot Camp / Intermediate

4:00 p.m. The Ark—Teachers: David Ivey and Jeff Sheppard

Lesson: Accent for the New Singer

4:00 p.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Tom Malone Tom Malone opened this lesson by saying “not many could read, but all could adore” (referring to singing school students of the past). People in pre-tech times relied heavily on memorization. Singing masters would teach in a question and answer form in order to help memorize the question and answer. For over 170 years, specific phrases have remained exactly the same in the rudiments. The rudiments are built on a core of material that doesn’t change. Tom referred to the rudiments as a learner’s permit to drive, and leading in the square as the keys, car, and gas.

Tom referred to the modes of time (rudiments pg. 15 and 16), going over each one and explaining the time signature and what it means to the singer. The key to accent is the fall and lift of your hand. Primary accent in every mode of time is when your hand falls. The secondary accent in every mode of time is when your hand rises. The exception to the rule is 2/4 time which has no secondary accent. According to B.F. White, primary accent equals full accent, and secondary accent equals half accent. Accent means stress or emphasis on one part of a sentence or measure more than another. Rather than making the primary accent stronger, give less to the secondary accent. Observing accent should begin as the needed emphasis of the poetry, it the poet has done his job. Songs used as examples were 49t and 82t.

Poetry and music each have their own accent, but happily they are in sync with each other, with few exceptions. There are times when it is appropriate and necessary to withhold accent (syncopation and when the poetry demands). The song on page 224 was used as an example.

There are cases when the composer imposes accent on pre-written prose (such as a text from the Bible) that is non-rhyming. An example used during class time is page 512. There are a few awkward places, but mostly the accents line up just right. Singing with accent allows the singer to execute his/her part with less effort. Songs used were pages 119 and 360.

5:00 p.m.—Recreation

Elective: The Times—They are a Changing

5:00 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg Jesse brought the class to order by leading 43. His lesson was about songs in the Sacred Harp book with time changes. There are 22 songs in the book with time changes (about 5%). These songs were written over the time span of 3 centuries by 14 authors.

There are 3 different types of songs with time changes: camp meeting tunes and folk hymns; anthems, odes, and set pieces; and fuging tunes.

Accent depends on the mode of time and so may change with each mode of time. Marking time as a leader is very important when leading songs with time changes. When there is a change of time, there should be a change of tempo.

Many anthems have a time change that slows down at the end to signal a dramatic finish. “Sermon on the Mount” includes 5 out of the 7 modes of time.

Elective: Unusual Songs / Youth

5:00 p.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Stuart Ivey Stuart Ivey began this lesson by posing the question “What makes a song unusual?” There is more than one answer to this question—titles, songs not sung often, and songs with various dynamics, to name a few.

Titles: There are many songs named for states: for example, 196 (Alabama), 271t (Arkansas), 203 (Florida), and 197 (Georgia). Other geographical names include 163b (China), 178 (Africa), 36t (America), and city names such as 73t (Cusseta), and 73b (Arlington). The song on page 485 is named for a street in Chicago (New Agatite). The Sacred Harp also includes songs with patriotic names and themes, such as 346 (American Star), 110 (Mt. Vernon, about the death of George Washington), and 160t (War Department).

Songs not sung often: The song on page 26 was added in the 1936 revision. Maggie Denson Cagle brought the song in after the book was basically finished, so it was placed at the front to precede page 27 (Bethel) as the first song. The longest song in the book is page 254 and the shortest is page 213b. Stuart quoted J.L. Hopper saying that this song (213b) was “picked green”. Some songs not sung often are songs in which all the parts do not start at the same time, such as 280 and 195.

Songs with various dynamics: Many of the songs in the Sacred Harp book have “birds eyes” (fermata) or an indefinite tone length. Examples of these songs are 198, 316, 507, 59, 48t, 34t, and 96. Other songs have triplets, such as the song on page 188. Some songs are unusual in that the words match up with what is going on in the music such, as 282 and 344.

6:00 p.m.—Dinner

Class Singing

7:30 p.m. The Ark—Youth Girls The class was called to order. A special rendition of 33b was sung by the Youth Girls.

Leaders: Alex Makris, Rachel Allred, Micah Rodgers, and Rebecca Eldridge 81t; Joel Jenkins, Joseph Castillo, James Castillo, Justin Corbett, Isaac Maxwell, Jonathan Pendleton, and Barrett Patton 282; Drew Smith, Ethan Corbett, Zach Craig, James Eldridge, James Nugent, Caleb Allred, and Demond Lightfoot 179; Jackson Harcrow, Tom George, Tony Kiser, B.J. Schnorenberg, and Garrett Sipe 448t; Blake Sisemore, Caleb Kiser, Stephen Dalton, Oliver Kindig-Stokes, Andrew Kiser, Bentley McGuire, and Corbin Rodgers 193; Molly Ellis and Stephanie Fida 163b; Benjamin Bath 428; Callie Garnett and Daniel Hunter 86; David Rivers and Jo Pendleton 59; Jane Spencer 133; Sam Sommers 316; Rachel Rudi 451; Nathan Rees 292; Kathy Williams and Liz Cantrell 283; Rodney Ivey 540; Lauren Hall and Rachel Shavers 424; Mary Redman 496; Susan Harcrow and Ricky Harcrow 192; Jonathon Smith 189; Brittany Tanedo and Rachel Allred 499; Judy Caudle and Tom Malone 240; Jeannette DePoy and Scott DePoy 201; Stuart Ivey and Jordan-Leigh Taylor 200; Brian Tanedo and Blake Tanedo 505; Cassie Allen and Liz Kiser 442; Pam Nunn 269.

Alexandra Craig conducted the devotional. She spoke of her preparations for camp and discussed her realization that she was coming here to learn more about praising God. She read from Psalms and encouraged the class to remember that we sing praises to our Lord. She led 272.

Allison Schofield, Deidra Montgomery, Kelsey Sunderland, and Lauren Bock led 46 as the closing song. Rachel Shavers offered the closing prayer, and the class was dismissed.

Thursday, July 2

Lesson: Rudiments III / Youth I—Basics

9:00 a.m. The Ark—Teachers: Tom Malone and Judy Caudle Basic rudiments and leading lessons continued.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Youth II—Intermediate

9:00 a.m. Genesis—Teacher: David Ivey David opened the class by passing out cards and pens. The class warmed up by singing the major and minor scales. He talked to the class about taking care of their voices. One should get plenty of rest before singing. Young voices will recover faster, and yet, will get hurt easily.

David posed the question “Why do you sing the part you sing?” Different people answered the question. He then asked how many people know other parts, and different ones answered. He encourages the class to try other parts to find where they “fit”.

Alex Makris led the song on page 53. David pointed out the repeat to the beginning, observing the full 2 beats of the rests, and the tenor pick-up at the chorus (dotted eighth note followed by sixteenth note).

David led 351 and pointed out the word painting that occurs with the sweep of eighth notes.

Lesson: Rudiments III / Young Adults

9:00 a.m. Dining Hall—Teacher: Samuel Sommers Samuel Sommers opened the lesson with prayer and welcome. He reviewed the seven modes of time and their importance in proper accent. He led the class in the scale and some intervals, stressing especially the dominant being a fifth above the tonic and the sub-dominant being a fifth below the tonic. He remarked that in Sacred Harp harmony, the concords are unison, perfect fourths (the sub-dominant), perfect fifths (the dominant), and octaves. Sometimes the third is also treated as a concord. He stated that the key signatures added sharps by fifths up and the flats are added by fifths down.

Dynamics do exist in Sacred Harp, sometimes with symbols, or with words (softly or loudly), or simply understood dynamics (tradition) as in the song on page 143. The class sang 177 with special attention to dynamics and accent. In the mechanics chapter (rudiments pg. 20-21), Sam reminded us to sit or stand straight and sing with clear diction.

He reviewed the musical forms found in the Sacred Harp (rudiments pg. 23). Sam shared opinions about song selection being important, stating that one should choose something he (and the class) can sing. Don’t use an anthem too early or too late in the day. He admonished us not to criticize or mock a song at a singing—it’s somebody’s favorite. Talk about it at the social, if you must, but not at the singing. Respect is paramount to our hosts or to our guests. To ensure the best singing always sing (1) for God, (2) for other people, and (3) for ourselves, and we’ll do fine.

10:15 a.m.—Snacks 10:30 a.m.—Recreation and Crafts with Liz Kiser Elective: 1959 United Convention Recording at Fyffe, Alabama 10:30 a.m. Genesis—Teacher: Aldo Ceresa Aldo Ceresa welcomed the class by sharing the story of his introduction to Sacred Harp and the critical role of Alan Lomax’s 1959 recording in that.

Alan Lomax’s folk music recordings (of many sorts) are extremely important to musicians and music historians. Aldo discussed Lomax’s life and influence on American music throughout his career, and his continued attempts to record Sacred Harp conventions (initially hindered by the primitive recording equipment of the time).

Joyce Walton spoke about her experience at the 1959 United Convention, including the difficulty of not tripping over Lomax’s microphone cords. She spoke about God’s role in that convention and in all Sacred Harp singing conventions, and encouraged singers to come to the 50th Anniversary singing in September 2009. She also told the story of several singers who later discovered that she was the woman speaking on the recording.

Hugh McGraw shared a story about Mr. Lomax’s insights into recording (to put the recorder high in the air) during his stay at Mr. McGraw’s house.

Aldo read a letter from Janet Herman about her meeting with Alan Lomax as she was working on the “In Sweetest Union” recording project in 1999. Despite memory loss he was still excited about Sacred Harp.

Reba Windom shared her experience of meeting Alan Lomax at the convention. She led 273, the same song she led at the 1959 convention.

Aldo played the recording of 186 from the convention, and David Ivey recalled that his great-great uncle was the leader of that song. Mr. McGraw identified many of the singers in the photographs from the convention, and told of their other accomplishments. The class listened to 146, noting Carl Hughes’s prominent alto singing and the excellent accenting on the track.

Joyce Walton spoke about learning music from Marcus Cagle when he visited her home in 1959, emphasizing the importance of those memories to her. When she first came to Georgia, she visited extensively with the Cagles, and Mr. Cagle asked her to make sure the tradition was carried on properly. She stressed the importance of singing properly and inspiring others around you to do the same.

The class listened to Marcus Cagle’s speech from the recording. David Ivey led the class in singing 318. Aldo read a quote from Uncle Tom Denson from a newspaper article covering the convention. Reba Windom led 182, and then spoke about her father and his role in her learning to sing alto. He had a stationary leading style, while she leads much more like her grandfather.

The class looked at the minutes of the 1959 convention and Joyce Walton spoke about how few alto singers there were at a singing (often only Joyce (Smith) Walton, Reba (Lacy) Windom, and Eloise (Ivey) Wootten). She led 269.

Aldo offered closing remarks. The class ended with prayer.

12:00 p.m.—Lunch

Lesson: Sacred Harp Heritage—Hugh McGraw

1:00 p.m. The Ark—Teacher: Tom Malone Tom Malone presented a slide show he had compiled about the life of Hugh McGraw.

The class sang songs written by Mr. McGraw. Leaders: Beth Anne Clay 225t; Allison Schofield 500; Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg 527; Jeff Sheppard related a story about Hugh and led 548; Aldo Ceresa 517, “Life’s Troubles”; Bob Meek related a story about Hugh; Tom Malone and David Ivey led “Redemption’s Free”; David Ivey related a story about Hugh; Kathy Williams related a story about Hugh; Joanna Lampert led 549; Pam Nunn related a story about Hugh; Robert Kelly led 516; Joyce Walton related a story about Hugh and led 570.

Hugh told the class about his trip to Hollywood and about his trip to Israel. Tom Malone led “God’s Promise” (a song removed from the Sacred Harp book in 1966). He presented a certificate of appreciation to Hugh McGraw from Camp Fasola 2009.

2:30 p.m.—Recreation Elective: Harmony Tradition That Sets Sacred Harp Apart 2:30 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Henry Johnson In observing the differences between Sacred Harp music and other music, the most important distinction is the harmony. B.F. White listed unison, third, fifth, and sixth, as well as fourth, as concords. The harmony is dispersed. The chord structure changes frequently. There are “tall” chords with a long distance between two parts, and the parts often cross each other.

The music is polyphonic. The melody does not stand out so much. The music is based more often on intervals of the fourth and fifth than on the third. Open fifths are particularly prominent in the Sacred Harp. One and five, five and two, and six and three are the most frequent of those chords.

Writers also used a gapped scale. They often left out the fourth and the seventh. Only the tonic and sub-mediant chords (triads) are possible with the pentatonic scale—part of the reason so many songs were composed of open chords. Henry has found 17 songs in the Sacred Harp that are purely pentatonic in all parts. They are on pages 34t, 75, 76b, 101t, 109, 111t, 111b, 138b, 175, 282, 285b, 329, 337, 354b, 390, 406, and 459. Several other songs deviate by only one note. (This is considered songs in their original three part harmony).

The song on page 460 begins (before the fugue) with a section of primarily dyads, but the fugue incorporates a number of triads. The alto at the end of the first phrase and the end of the song includes a third. The song on page 112, by the same author, Sarah Lancaster, was not written with an alto part. The song on page 439, by Marcus Cagle, actually has 19 dyad chords, including a very prominent one before the phrase bar indicating the repeat. The class was dismissed.

3:45 p.m.—Lemonade Making with Bud and Sammie Oliver

Elective: Discussion on Future of Camp Fasola

4:00 p.m. Dining Hall—Teachers: David Ivey and Jeff Sheppard David Ivey began the discussion by stating that the most challenging aspect of planning camp is trying to accommodate everyone, both in terms of limits on attendance and what different ages need.

David noted that more people by far were able to attend because the camp was divided into two separate sessions. The Camp McDowell facility is much better suited for the adults, and Camp Lee is better suited for the youth. The assembled group discussed the possibility of training for teachers as well as for students. David noted that many of the younger people who had started at Camp years ago are now teaching others with great success. One asked about a class on starting or developing singings outside the area where Sacred Harp is sung traditionally. Others discussed the possibility of online registration.

Eventually, SHMHA would like an organization that can operate multiple camps throughout the summer.

Elective: The Treble Part

4:15 p.m. Genesis—Teacher: Susan Harcrow Susan began her class by talking about the treble part. She said the treble part is the hardest to hear when trying to learn, maybe because one has sung another part for so long. When learning to sing treble, it helps to sit by a strong treble singer. She stressed that the treble and tenor parts needed a good balance of men and women singers.

A person who can sing tenor can often also sing treble. One just has to build up endurance. The notes of the treble part are the same, just occurring in a higher range more frequently and for a longer period of time. Trebles tend to come in late in a fuging tune, rarely on entrances.

Susan related that the treble part has its own melody. It helps, for women, if you can “sing it pretty”. She said her pet peeve was sliding up and down to notes; hitting too many notes on the way causes discords. One should learn to land on top of the notes and have no fear of not being able to reach the pitch. She encouraged beginners to listen to recordings, both instrumental and vocal, and not to get lazy, and she encouraged singers to continually practice.

Elective: Sacred Harp Composium

4:15 p.m. The Ark—Teacher: Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg 5:30—Dinner

Community Singing

7:00 p.m. The Ark—Young Adults The class was called to order by Anna Hendrick leading 314. Drew Smith offered the opening prayer.

Leaders: Daniel Hunter 395; Jennie Brown 389; Cassie Allen and Zachary Marcus 501; Callie Garnett and Tim Morton 441; Nick Kinsey and Jean Garnett 319; Henry Johnson and Lela Crowder 138t; Lucy O’Leary and Molly Ellis 317; Sarah Jenkins and her girls 142; Jordan-Leigh Taylor and her girls 542; Oliver Kindig-Stokes and Ruth Wampler 383; Jackson Harcrow and his boys 457; Michael Mosley and Carol Munro-Mosley 485; Donna Bell and Jennifer Mosteller 503; Lela Crowder and her girls 222; Blake Sisemore and Reba Windom 196; Drew Smith and his boys 328; Laura Krueger 162; Lauren Hall and Alex Makris 344; Lauren Bock and her girls 178; Liz Cantrell and Mary Gowins 313t; Peter Irvine, Anna Maria Irvine, and Deidra Montgomery 448t; Ina Shea and Becky Wright 224; Robert Kelly and Mary Redman 76b; Joanna Lampert and her girls 155; Matt Hinton and Erica Hinton 157; Drew Sellers and Jonathon Smith 146; Ariella Perry 440; Justin Levi and Tom Malone 545; Ruth Norton and Stephanie Fida 209; Joel Jenkins and his boys 63; Guy Bankes and Sara Bowen 549; Nathan Rees 171; Bob Meek and Darrell Swarens 454.

Anna Hendrick led 378t as the closing song. Nathan Rees offered the closing prayer, and the class was dismissed.